83 episodes

Your weekly "Snippit" of applied sports science

Snippit Sports Science Podcast SnippitScience

    • Health & Fitness

Your weekly "Snippit" of applied sports science

    Snippit 83 ► Can passive heating help with muscle hypertrophy and performance outcomes?

    Snippit 83 ► Can passive heating help with muscle hypertrophy and performance outcomes?

    Happy New Year everyone.
    I hope this email finds you well.  Today's podcast continues our current theme on the role of heat with respect to all things sports science. This episode looks at the role of passive heat on muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular performance outcomes. This is a review so it covers a wide breadth of quality academic articles.  We hope you enjoy it and look forward to bringing you more articles over the coming year.
     
    Effects of Passive Heating Intervention on Muscle Hypertrophy and Neuromuscular Function: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis
    Objective: To synthesise the evidence on the effects of passive heating on muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular function.

    Methods: Seven databases were searched using combinations of the terms: passive heating, muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular function. Eligible studies included original papers using healthy animals or human samples (≥ 18 years) that have used a control group or condition. Studies involving combined interventions or applied passive heating as a recovery strategy for exercise were excluded.
    Results: After duplicates had been removed the search generated 1,747 references. Of these, the criteria were met by eight studies in the systematic review and four studies were used to perform the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis detected an increase in muscle mass in animal samples seven days after passive heating (I2= 65%, P= 0.00001). The systematic review showed some preliminary evidence, such as, muscle hypertrophy was reported after chronic passive heat intervention in animals and humans, augmented muscle strength was observed.



     



     




     

    Again, thank you to our podcast sponsor EliteForm, which brings together cutting edge sports science technologies.  Please visit https://eliteform.com and check out their products, StrengthPlanner and PowerTracker.

    Thanks again for listening.  Please check out some of our other content below.
     
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    • 16 min
    Snippit 82 ► Heat Adaptation - Return of the Heat

    Snippit 82 ► Heat Adaptation - Return of the Heat

     
    Snippit is made possible by listeners like you.Please help support the podcast:► https://www.patreon.com/snippitscience  
     
     


    The Effects of Heat Adaptation on Physiology, Perception and Exercise Performance in the Heat: A Meta-Analysis
    Sports Medicine November 2016 Volume 46 Issue 11 pp 1699-1724



    Christopher J. Tyler
    Tom Reeve
    Gary J. Hodges
    Stephen S. Cheung



    Systematic Review
    First Online: 22 April 2016
     



    Abstract

     
    Background
    Exercise performance and capacity are impaired in hot, compared to temperate, conditions. Heat adaptation (HA) is one intervention commonly adopted to reduce this impairment because it may induce beneficial exercise performance and physiological and perceptual adaptations. A number of investigations have been conducted on HA but, due to large methodological differences, the effectiveness of different HA regimens remain unclear.


     
    Objectives
    (1) To quantify the effect of different HA regimens on exercise performance and the physiological and perceptual responses to subsequent heat exposure. (2) To offer practical HA recommendations and suggestions for future HA research based upon a systematic and quantitative synthesis of the literature.


     
    Data Source
    PubMed was searched for original research articles published up to, and including, 16 February 2016 using appropriate first- and second-order search terms.


     
    Study Selection
    English-language, peer-reviewed, full-text original articles using human participants were reviewed using the four-stage process identified in the PRISMA statement.
     


    Data Extraction
    Data for the following variables were obtained from the manuscripts by at least two of the authors: participant sex, maximal oxygen consumption and age; HA duration, frequency, modality, temperature and humidity; exercise performance and capacity; core and skin temperature; heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, skin blood flow, sweat onset temperature, body mass loss, sweat rate, perception of thirst, volitional fluid consumption, plasma volume changes; sweat concentrations of sodium, chloride and potassium; aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, heat shock proteins (Hsp), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation.
     


    Data Grouping
    Data were divided into three groups based upon the frequency of the HA regimen. Performance and capacity data were also divided into groups based upon the type of HA used.
     


    Data Analyses
    Hedges’ g effect sizes and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. Correlations were run where appropriate.
     


    Results
    Ninety-six articles were reviewed. The most common duration was 7–14 days and the most common method of HA was the controlled work-rate approach. HA had a moderately beneficial effect on exercise capacity and performance in the heat irrespective of regimen; however, longer regimens were more effective than shorter approaches. HA had a moderate-to-large beneficial effect on lowering core body temperature before and during exercise, maintaining cardiovascular stability, and improving heat-loss pathways. Data are limited but HA may reduce oxygen consumption during subsequent exercise, improve glycogen sparing, increase the power output at lactate threshold, reduce lactate concentrations during exercise, have a trivial effect on increasing extracellular concentrations of Hsp, and improve perceived ratings of exertion and thermal sensation.
     


    Conclusion
    HA regimens lasting

    • 18 min
    Snippit 81 ► Heat Adaptation - The Heat Strikes Back

    Snippit 81 ► Heat Adaptation - The Heat Strikes Back

     
    Snippit is made possible by listeners like you.Please help support the podcast:► https://www.patreon.com/snippitscience  
     
     


    The Effects of Heat Adaptation on Physiology, Perception and Exercise Performance in the Heat: A Meta-Analysis
    Sports Medicine November 2016 Volume 46 Issue 11 pp 1699-1724



    Christopher J. Tyler
    Tom Reeve
    Gary J. Hodges
    Stephen S. Cheung



    Systematic Review
    First Online: 22 April 2016
     



    Abstract

     
    Background
    Exercise performance and capacity are impaired in hot, compared to temperate, conditions. Heat adaptation (HA) is one intervention commonly adopted to reduce this impairment because it may induce beneficial exercise performance and physiological and perceptual adaptations. A number of investigations have been conducted on HA but, due to large methodological differences, the effectiveness of different HA regimens remain unclear.


     
    Objectives
    (1) To quantify the effect of different HA regimens on exercise performance and the physiological and perceptual responses to subsequent heat exposure. (2) To offer practical HA recommendations and suggestions for future HA research based upon a systematic and quantitative synthesis of the literature.


     
    Data Source
    PubMed was searched for original research articles published up to, and including, 16 February 2016 using appropriate first- and second-order search terms.


     
    Study Selection
    English-language, peer-reviewed, full-text original articles using human participants were reviewed using the four-stage process identified in the PRISMA statement.
     


    Data Extraction
    Data for the following variables were obtained from the manuscripts by at least two of the authors: participant sex, maximal oxygen consumption and age; HA duration, frequency, modality, temperature and humidity; exercise performance and capacity; core and skin temperature; heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, skin blood flow, sweat onset temperature, body mass loss, sweat rate, perception of thirst, volitional fluid consumption, plasma volume changes; sweat concentrations of sodium, chloride and potassium; aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, heat shock proteins (Hsp), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation.
     


    Data Grouping
    Data were divided into three groups based upon the frequency of the HA regimen. Performance and capacity data were also divided into groups based upon the type of HA used.
     


    Data Analyses
    Hedges’ g effect sizes and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. Correlations were run where appropriate.
     


    Results
    Ninety-six articles were reviewed. The most common duration was 7–14 days and the most common method of HA was the controlled work-rate approach. HA had a moderately beneficial effect on exercise capacity and performance in the heat irrespective of regimen; however, longer regimens were more effective than shorter approaches. HA had a moderate-to-large beneficial effect on lowering core body temperature before and during exercise, maintaining cardiovascular stability, and improving heat-loss pathways. Data are limited but HA may reduce oxygen consumption during subsequent exercise, improve glycogen sparing, increase the power output at lactate threshold, reduce lactate concentrations during exercise, have a trivial effect on increasing extracellular concentrations of Hsp, and improve perceived ratings of exertion and thermal sensation.
     


    Conclusion
    HA regimens lasting

    • 19 min
    Snippit 80 ► Heat Adaptation - A New Heat

    Snippit 80 ► Heat Adaptation - A New Heat

     
    Snippit is made possible by listeners like you.Please help support the podcast:► https://www.patreon.com/snippitscience  
     
     


    The Effects of Heat Adaptation on Physiology, Perception and Exercise Performance in the Heat: A Meta-Analysis
    Sports Medicine November 2016 Volume 46 Issue 11 pp 1699-1724



    Christopher J. Tyler
    Tom Reeve
    Gary J. Hodges
    Stephen S. Cheung



    Systematic Review
    First Online: 22 April 2016
     



    Abstract

     
    Background
    Exercise performance and capacity are impaired in hot, compared to temperate, conditions. Heat adaptation (HA) is one intervention commonly adopted to reduce this impairment because it may induce beneficial exercise performance and physiological and perceptual adaptations. A number of investigations have been conducted on HA but, due to large methodological differences, the effectiveness of different HA regimens remain unclear.


     
    Objectives
    (1) To quantify the effect of different HA regimens on exercise performance and the physiological and perceptual responses to subsequent heat exposure. (2) To offer practical HA recommendations and suggestions for future HA research based upon a systematic and quantitative synthesis of the literature.


     
    Data Source
    PubMed was searched for original research articles published up to, and including, 16 February 2016 using appropriate first- and second-order search terms.


     
    Study Selection
    English-language, peer-reviewed, full-text original articles using human participants were reviewed using the four-stage process identified in the PRISMA statement.
     


    Data Extraction
    Data for the following variables were obtained from the manuscripts by at least two of the authors: participant sex, maximal oxygen consumption and age; HA duration, frequency, modality, temperature and humidity; exercise performance and capacity; core and skin temperature; heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, skin blood flow, sweat onset temperature, body mass loss, sweat rate, perception of thirst, volitional fluid consumption, plasma volume changes; sweat concentrations of sodium, chloride and potassium; aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, heat shock proteins (Hsp), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation.
     


    Data Grouping
    Data were divided into three groups based upon the frequency of the HA regimen. Performance and capacity data were also divided into groups based upon the type of HA used.
     


    Data Analyses
    Hedges’ g effect sizes and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. Correlations were run where appropriate.
     


    Results
    Ninety-six articles were reviewed. The most common duration was 7–14 days and the most common method of HA was the controlled work-rate approach. HA had a moderately beneficial effect on exercise capacity and performance in the heat irrespective of regimen; however, longer regimens were more effective than shorter approaches. HA had a moderate-to-large beneficial effect on lowering core body temperature before and during exercise, maintaining cardiovascular stability, and improving heat-loss pathways. Data are limited but HA may reduce oxygen consumption during subsequent exercise, improve glycogen sparing, increase the power output at lactate threshold, reduce lactate concentrations during exercise, have a trivial effect on increasing extracellular concentrations of Hsp, and improve perceived ratings of exertion and thermal sensation.
     


    Conclusion
    HA regimens lasting

    • 17 min
    Snippit 79 ► Combining BFR & Electrostimulation - Accelerate injury recovery

    Snippit 79 ► Combining BFR & Electrostimulation - Accelerate injury recovery

     
    Snippit is made possible by listeners like you.Please help support the podcast:► https://www.patreon.com/snippitscience  
     
    Hi everyone,
    This episode builds on the last one which started to look at the role that EMS can assist with strength and muscle gains.  The addition of Blood Flow Restriction with EMS prior to this paper hadn't been investigated so this was a novel investigation.
    As always we appreciate the support of Eliteform (www.eliteform.com) so if you are into velocity based training make sure you check them out as I am sure you'll be excited with their product. 
    The Effects of Blood Flow Restricted Electrostimulation on Strength and Hypertrophy.
    Slysz JT, Burr JF.

    J Sport Rehabil.2018 May 1;27(3):257-262. doi: 10.1123/jsr.2017-0002. Epub 2018 May 22.


    Abstract

    CONTEXT:
    The combined effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle mass and strength has not been thoroughly investigated.
    OBJECTIVE:
    To examine the effects of combined and independent BFR and a low-intensity NMES on skeletal muscle adaptation.
     
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
    Subjects had each leg randomly allocated to 1 of 4 possible intervention groups: (1) cyclic BFR alone, (2) NMES alone, (3) BFR + NMES, or (4) control. Each leg was stimulated in its respective intervention group for 32 minutes, 4 days per week for 6 weeks. Mean differences in size (in grams) and isometric strength (in kilograms), between week 0 and week 6, were calculated for each group.

    Again, thank you to our podcast sponsor EliteForm, which brings together cutting edge sports science technologies.  Please visit https://eliteform.com and check out their products, StrengthPlanner and PowerTracker.

    Thanks again for listening.  Please check out some of our other content below.
     
    Please subscribe to Snippit:
     ► http://snippitscience.com
     ► https://snippitscience.podbean.com
     ► https://soundcloud.com/snippitscience
     ► http://bit.do/snippititunes
     ► http://bit.do/snippitspotify
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     ► http://bit.do/snippitnewsletter
     ► http://feed.podbean.com/snippitscience/feed.xml RSS
     
    Explore our other content:
     ► https://bfrradio.podbean.com
     ► https://chrisgaviglio.com
     ► https://eliteform.com
     ► https://twitter.com/ChrisGaviglio
     ► https://twitter.com/Jared_CS
     
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    • 14 min
    Snippit 78 ► Sprint Faster with EMS

    Snippit 78 ► Sprint Faster with EMS

     
    Snippit is made possible by listeners like you.Please help support the podcast:► https://www.patreon.com/snippitscience  
     
    Hi everyone,
    We hope you've been enjoying our podcast.  If you could help us out by leaving a rating on iTunes we would really appreciate it.  Today's episode we look at the effect of Electromyostimulation (EMS) on the calf/foot musculature on sprint performance. This has a real pragmatic feel to this paper and its something that we can all trial it straight away. 
    As always we appreciate the support of Eliteform (www.eliteform.com) so if you are into velocity based training make sure you check them out as I am sure you'll be excited with their product. 
     
    Effect of Electrical Myostimulation on the Function of Lower Leg Muscles.
    Silinskas V, GrŪnovas A, Stanislovaitiene J, Buliuolis A, Trinkunas E, Poderys J.
     
    J Strength Cond Res. 2017 Jun;31(6):1577-1584. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001594.

     


    Abstract

    Electrical myostimulation (EMS) method is applied to improve skeletal muscle function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of EMS applied to the sole and calf muscles on their strength and on maximal sprint performance.
    Each of 10 training sessions involved 10 seconds of stimulation and 50 seconds of rest for a total of 10 minutes.
    After the 10 training sessions, the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of right calf muscles increased by 6.0% from 830.0 ± 47.0 N to 878.0 ± 45.3 N (p ≤ 0.05). When EMS was applied to trained athletes, their 10-m sprint performance improved by 2.1% (p ≤ 0.05).
    In the second part of the study, a 3-week training program with EMS was applied to athletes, which significantly improved their 10-m sprint performance from a standing start by 5.3% and from a running start by 4.7% (p ≤ 0.05). Thus, 10 EMS cycles up to the maximal tolerated intensity applied every other day improved the MVC of foot flexion muscles and 10-m sprint performance from both standing and running starts. Three weeks of EMS training did not affect the intensity of calf muscle blood flow and oxygen saturation at rest. The training program supplemented with 10 EMS sessions produced significantly greater effects on the 10-m sprint performance from both a standing and a running start.



    Again, thank you to our podcast sponsor EliteForm, which brings together cutting edge sports science technologies.  Please visit https://eliteform.com and check out their products, StrengthPlanner and PowerTracker.

    Thanks again for listening.  Please check out some of our other content below.
     
    Please subscribe to Snippit:
     ► http://snippitscience.com
     ► https://snippitscience.podbean.com
     ► https://soundcloud.com/snippitscience
     ► http://bit.do/snippititunes
     ► http://bit.do/snippitspotify
     ► http://bit.do/snippityoutube
     ► http://bit.do/snippitnewsletter
     ► http://feed.podbean.com/snippitscience/feed.xml RSS
     
    Explore our other content:
     ► https://bfrradio.podbean.com
     ► https://chrisgaviglio.com
     ► https://eliteform.com
     ► https://twitter.com/ChrisGaviglio
     ► https://twitter.com/Jared_CS
     
    Follow SnippitScience on social media:
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    Please like, share, and comment below, subscribe at the top of the page, and help support the podcast:
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    • 11 min

Customer Reviews

Alex Nat ,

Sport science research - reviewed succinctly

A great weekly series of short and impactful podcasts on a range of sport science topics. Cuts down the reading time and is just a perfect “snipit” of a peer reviewed article with background, methods, key findings and practical implications - all done in around ten minutes

Gorilla2050 ,

Mr

A nice production from Jared and Chris. Short and sharp they give a good overview of this paper. Looking forward to more from these guys.

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