Each podcast will include key highlights from the journal's current issue and a report on new research published in the field of arrhythmia and electrophysiology.
Each podcast will include key highlights from the journal's current issue and a report on new research published in the field of arrhythmia and electrophysiology.
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology November 2019 Issue
Dr Paul Wang: Welcome to the monthly podcast, On the Beat, for Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. I'm Dr Paul Wang, editor in chief, with some of the key highlights from this month's issue.
In our first paper, Leroy Joseph and associates examined whether an increase in dietary saturated fat could lead to abnormalities of calcium homeostasis and heart rhythm, by an NADPH oxidase 2, NOX2-dependent mechanism.
In mice on high fat diets, they found that saturated fat activates NOX, whereas polyunsaturated fat does not. The high saturated fat diet increased repolarization heterogeneity in ventricular tachycardia, VT inducibility in perfused hearts. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic deletion of NOX2 prevented arrhythmogenic abnormalities in vivo during high saturated fat diet and resulted in less inducible VT. On the other hand, high saturated fat diet activates calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase in the heart, which contributes to abnormal calcium handling, promoting arrhythmia. This work suggests that a molecular mechanism links cardiac metabolism to arrhythmia and it suggest that NOX2 inhibitors could be a novel therapy for heart rhythm abnormalities caused by cardiac lipid overload.
In our next paper, Misha Regouski and associates examined whether the relationship between endurance exercise and atrial fibrillation, or AF, is dependent on atrial myopathy. They examined six cardiac specific TGFβ1 transgenic and six wild type goats. Pacemakers were implanted in all animals for continuous arrhythmia monitoring and AF inducibility. AF inducibility was evaluated using five separate ten second bursts of atrial pacing. At baseline sustained AF greater than 30 seconds was induced with 10 seconds of atrial pacing in 4 out of 6 transgenic goats, compared to zero out of six wild type controls, P less than 0.05. No spontaneous AF was observed at baseline, three months of progressive endurance exercise up to 90 minutes at 4.5 miles per hour was performed. The authors observed that between two to three months of exercise, three out of six transgenic animals developed self-terminating spontaneous atrial fibrillation compared to zero out of six wild type animals, (P less than 0.05). There was an increase in AF inducibility in both transgenic and wild type animals during the first two months of exercise with partial normalization at three months.
These changes in AF susceptibility were associated with a decrease in circulating micro RNA 21 and micro RNA 29 during the first two months of exercise, with partial normalization three months in both transgenic and wild type animals. The authors concluded that endurance exercise appears to increase inducible AF secondary to altered expression of key profibrotic biomarkers that is independent of the presence of an atrial myopathy.
In our next paper, Seokhun Yang and associates examined whether there is an association between lifetime exposure to endogenous sex hormone, and incident atrial fibrillation, or AF, in subsequent ischemic stroke. They studied nearly five million natural postmenopausal women aged 40 years or greater without prior history of AF and with breast cancer. The primary end point was incident AF and the secondary end point was subsequent ischemic stroke once AF is developed. During the mean follow up of 6.3 years, shorter total reproductive years (For the secondary endpoint analysis, the risk of ischemic stroke after AF development significantly decreased with each five-year increment in total reproductive years with less than 30 years as a reference. (Adjusted hazard ratio 0.93, for 30 to 34 years 0.84, for 35 to 39 years is 0.88, for 40 years or greater. P for trend less than 0.001) the authors concluded that women with natural menopause shortened lifetime exposure to endogenous sex hormone, that is, shorter total reproductive years, was significantly assoc
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology October 2019 Issue
Dr Paul Wang: Welcome to the monthly podcast, On the Beat for Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. I'm Dr Paul Wang, editor in chief, with some of the key highlights from this month's issue.
In our first paper, in a single‐center observational cohort study, Owen Donnellan and Associates compared arrhythmia recurrence rates in morbidly obese patients who underwent prior bariatric surgery, with those of non-obese patients following atrial fibrillation ablation. In addition to morbidly obese patients who did not undergo bariatric surgery, they matched 51 morbidly obese patients' body mass index, 40 kilograms per meter squared, who had undergone prior bariatric surgery in a two to one manner with 102 non-obese patients, and 102 morbidly obese patients without bariatric surgery on the basis of age, gender, and timing of atrial fibrillation ablation. From the time of bariatric surgery to ablation, bariatric surgery was associated with a significant reduction in BMI. 47.6 to 36.7 and reduction in systolic blood pressure, 145 to 118, P During a mean follow up of 29 months following ablation, recurrent arrhythmia occurred in 10 out of 51 or 20 patients in a bariatric surgery group, compared to 25 out of 102 patients, 24.5% in a non-obese group, and 56 out of 102 or 55% in the non-bariatric surgery morbidly obese group. No procedural complications were observed in the bariatric surgery group. In our next paper, Martin Andreas and Associates examined whether noninvasive, low-level, transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the greater auricular nerve reduced the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation, in a pilot of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. After cardiac surgery, electrodes were applied in the triangular fossa of the ear. Stimulation, amplitude 1-million-amp frequency, one Hertz for 40 minutes, followed by a 20-minute break, was performed for up to two weeks after cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized into sham, N equals 20 or treatment group, N equals 20, for low- level, transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Patients receiving low-level, transcutaneous stimulation had a significant reduced incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Four out of 20, compared to controls 11 out of 20. P equals 0.02.
The median duration of postoperative atrial fibrillation was comparable between the treatment group and control group. No effect on low-level stimulation on CRP or IL-6 levels was detectable. In our next paper, Kazuki Iso and Associates examine whether the vagal response phenomenon is common to patients without atrial fibrillation. Continuous, high- frequent stimulation of the left atrial ganglion and plexus was performed in 42 patients, undergoing ablation for atrial fibrillation. In 21 patients undergoing ablation for left-sided accessory pathway, the high frequency stimulation, 20 Hertz at 25 milliamps of 10 millisecond pulse duration, was applied for five seconds at three sites within the presumed anatomical area of each of the five major left atrial ganglion plexus, for a total of 15 sites per patient. The authors define vagal response to high frequency stimulation, as prolongation of the R interval by > 50% in comparison to the mean pre-high-frequency stimulation RR interval, average over 10 beats.
In active ganglion plexus areas, is areas in which vagal response was elicited. Overall, more active ganglion plexi or GP areas were found in the atrial fibrillation group patients, than in the
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology September 2019 Issue
Dr Wang: Welcome to the monthly podcast, On the Beat, for Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. I'm Dr Paul Wang, Editor-in-Chief, with some of the key highlights from this month's issue.
In our first paper, Ying Tian and associates examine the effects and long-term outcomes of percutaneous stellate ganglion blockade in the setting of drug refractory electrical storm due to ventricular arrhythmia. They studied 30 consecutive patients over nearly a five-year period. They used bupivacaine alone, or in combination with lidocaine injected into the neck with good local anesthetic spread in the vicinity of the left stellate ganglion in 15 patients, or both stellate ganglion in 15 patients.
The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 34%. At 24 hours, 60% of patients were free of ventricular arrhythmia. Patients whose ventricular arrhythmia was controlled had a lower hospital mortality rate than patients whose ventricular arrhythmia continued. 5.6 versus 50%, P equals 0.009. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator interrogation showed a significant 92% reduction in ventricular arrhythmia episodes from 26 to 2 in the 72 hours after stellate ganglion blockade, P less than 0.001.
Patients who died during the same hospitalization, N equals 7, were more likely to have ischemic cardiomyopathy, 100% versus 43.5%. And recurrent ventricular arrhythmias within 24 hours, 85.7% versus 26.1%. There were no procedure related complications.
In our next paper, Zachi Attia and associates hypothesized that a convolutional neural network could be trained through a process called 'deep learning' to predict a person's age and gender using only 12-lead electrocardiogram signals. They trained convolutional neural network using 10 second samples of 12-lead ECG signals from 499,727 patients to predict gender and age. The networks were tested on a separate cohort of 275,056 patients. For gender classification, the model obtained 90.4% classification accuracy with an area under the curve of 0.97. In the independent test data, age was estimated as a continuous variable with an average error of 6.9 years, R squared equals 0.7.
Among 100 hundred patients with multiple ECGs over the course of at least two decades of life, most patients, 51%, had an average error between real age and convolutional neural network predicted age of less than seven years. Major factors seen amongst patients with convolutional neural network predicted age that exceeded chronologic age by greater than seven years included low ejection fraction, hypertension, and coronary disease, P less than 0.1. In the 27% of patients whose correlation was greater than 0.8, between convolutional neural network predicted and chronological age, no incident events occurred over follow up 30 years.
The authors concluded that applying artificial intelligence to the ECG allows prediction of patient, gender, and estimation of age. The ability of artificial intelligent algorithm to determine physiological age with further validation may serve as a measure of overall health.
In our next paper, Zain Ul Abideen Asad and associates performed a meta-analysis of randomized control trials in order to compare the efficacy and safety of catheter ablation with medical therapy for atrial fibrillation with the primary outcome being all-cause mortality. They examined 18 randomized controlled trials comprising 4,464 patients. Catheter ablatio
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology August 2019 Issue
Dr Paul Wang: Welcome to the monthly podcast, On the Beat, for Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. I'm Dr Paul Wang, Editor-in-Chief, with some of the key highlights from this month's issue.
In our first paper, Mark McCauley, Flavia Vitale and associates report that carbon nanotube fibers may improve impaired myocardial conduction. In three sheep, radiofrequency ablation was used to create epicardial conduction delay. In addition, in a rodent model, carbon nanotube fibers were sewn across the atrial ventricular junction. They demonstrated acute ventricular preexcitation, but in chronic studies at four weeks, atrial pacing was required for resumption of AV conduction. Carbon nanotube fibers are conductive, biocompatible with no gross or histopathological evidence of toxicity.
In our next paper, Koichiro Ejima and associates compared outcomes of circumferential pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation ablation randomized to contact force monitoring or unipolar signal modification in 136 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. In the unipolar signal modification-guided group, each radiofrequency application was delivered until the development of completely positive unipolar electrograms. In the contact force monitoring-guided group, a contact force of 20 grams, ranged 10 to 30 grams, and a minimum force time integral of 400 gram seconds were the targets for each radiofrequency application. The freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrence at 12 months was 85% in the unipolar signal modification-guided group and 70% in the contact force monitoring-guided group, P equals 0.031. The radiofrequency time for pulmonary vein isolation was shorter in the unipolar signal modification-guided group than contact force monitoring-guided group, but was not statistically significant, P equals 0.077. The incidence of time-dependent in ATP-provoked early electrical reconnections between the left atrium and pulmonary veins, procedural time, fluoroscopic time, and average force-time integral did not significantly differ between the two groups.
In our next paper, Vishal Luther and associates tested whether ripple mapping is superior to conventional annotation-based local activation time mapping for atrial tachycardia diagnosis. Patients with atrial tachycardia were randomized, either ripple mapping or local activation time mapping. The primary endpoint was atrial tachycardia termination with delivery of the planned ablation lesion set. The inability to terminate atrial tachycardia with the first lesion set, the use of more than one entrainment maneuver, or the need to cross over to the other mapping arm were defined as failure to achieve the primary endpoint. The primary endpoint occurred in 38 of 42 patients or 90% in the ripple mapping group, and 29 of 41 patients, 71%, in the local activation time mapping group, P equals 0.45. The primary endpoint was achieved without any entrainment in 31 out of 42 patients or 74% with ripple mapping, and 18 out of 41 patients or 44% with local activation time mapping, P equals 0.01. Of those patients who failed to achieve the primary endpoint, atrial tachycardia termination was achieved in 9 out of 12 patients or 75% in the local activation time mapping group following crossover to ripple mapping with entrainment, but zero out of four patients, 0%, in ripple mapping group crossing over to local activation time mapping with entrainment, P equals 0.04.
In our next paper,
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology July 2018 Issue
Paul Wang: Welcome to the monthly podcast On The Beat, for Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. I'm Dr. Paul Wang, editor in chief, with some of the key highlights from this month's issue.
In our first paper, Moo-Nyun Jin, Tae-Hoon Kim, and associates examined the 1-year serial changes in cognitive function, with or without atrial fibrillation catheter ablation. They used the Montreal cognitive assessment score in 308 patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation, the ablation group and 50 atrial fibrillation patients on medical therapy who met the same indication for atrial fibrillation ablation, the control group at baseline three months and 12 months. Cognitive impairment was defined as a published cutoff score of less than 23 points. Pre-ablation cognitive impairment was a detected in 18.5%. The Montreal cognitive assessment score significantly improved one year after radio frequency ablation. In both the overall ablation group, 24.9 to 26.4 p less than 0.001, and the propensity matched ablation group 25.4 to 26.5, but not in the control group. 25.4 to 24.8 p equals 0.012. Pre-ablation cognitive pyramid odds ratio 13.7, was independently associated with an improvement in one-year post ablation cognitive function.
In our next paper, Zian Tseng, James Salazar and associates studied World Health Organization defined sudden cardiac deaths autopsied in the POstmortem Systemic InvesTigation of sudden cardiac death, the POST SCD study to determine whether premortem characteristics could identify autopsy defined sudden arrhythmic death among presumed sudden cardiac deaths. They prospectively identified 615 World Health Organization defined sudden cardiac deaths, of which 144 were witnessed. Autopsy defined sudden arrhythmic death had no extra cardiac or acute heart failure cause of death. Of the 615 presumed sudden critic deaths, 348 or 57% were autopsy defined, sudden arrhythmic deaths. For witness cases, using an emergency medical system model area under the receiver operator curve 0.75, included presenting rhythm of ventricular tech or cardiac fibrillation, pulseless electrical activity, while the comprehensive model, adding medical record data and depression, area under the curve 0.78. If only VTVF witness cases, 48 of those were classified as sudden arrhythmic death. The sensitivity was 0.46, and specificity 0.90.
For unwitnessed cases, the emergency medical system model, area under the curve 0.68, included black race, male sex, age, time since last seen normal, while the comprehensive, area into the curve 0.75, added the use of beta blockers, antidepressants, QT prolonging drugs, opiates, illicit drugs and dyslipidemia. If only unwitnessed cases, less than one hour, n equals 59, were classified as sudden arrhythmic deaths, the sensitivities were 0.18, and specificity was 0.95. The authors concluded that models could identify pre-mortem characteristics to better specify autopsy defined sudden arrhythmic deaths, among presumed sudden cardiac arrests. The authors suggest that the World Health Organization definition can be improved by restricting witnessed sudden cardiac deaths to ventricular tachycardia fibrillation or non-pulseless electrical activity rhythms in unwitnessed cases to less than one hour since last normal, at a cost of sensitivity.
In our next paper, Rafael Jaimes III and associates performed optical mapping of trends, membrane, voltage and pacing studies on isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts to assess the cardiac electrophysiology after mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, a phthalate with documented exposure in intensive care patients. The authors found that a 30-minute exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate increased the atrioventricular node effector in period 147 milliseconds compared to 170 milliseconds in controls and increased the ventricular effective refractory periods
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology June 2019 Issue
Dr. Wang: Welcome to the monthly podcast, On the Beat, for Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. I'm Dr. Paul Wong, editor-in-chief, with some of the key highlights from this month's issue.
In our first paper, Jeremy Wasserlauf and associates compare the accuracy of an atrial fibrillation sensing smartwatch with simultaneous recordings from an insertable cardiac monitor.
The authors use smart rhythm 2.0, a convolutional neuro-network, trained on anonymized data of heart rate, activity level and EKGs from 7500 AliveCor users.
The network was validated on data collected in 24 patients with insertable cardiac monitor, and a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who simultaneously wore the atrial fibrillation sensing smart watch with smart rhythm 0.1 software.
The primary outcome was sensitivity of the atrial fibrillation sensing smart watch for atrial fibrillation episodes of greater than equal to one hour. Secondary end points include sensitivity of atrial fibrillation sensing smart watch for detection of atrial fibrillation by subject and sensitivity for total duration across all subjects.
Subjects with greater than 50% false positive atrial fibrillation episodes on insertable cardiac monitor were excluded.
The authors analyzed 31,349 hours meaning 11.3 hours per day of simultaneous atrial fibrillation sensing smart watch and insertable cardiac monitor recordings in 24 patients. Insertable cardiac monitor detected 82 episodes of atrial fibrillation of one hour duration or greater while the atrial fibrillation sensing smartwatch was worn. With a total duration of 1,127 hours.
Of these, the smart rhythm 2.0 neural network detected 80 episodes. Episode sensitivity 97.5% with total duration 1,101 hours. Duration sensitivity 97.7%.
Three of the 18 subjects with atrial fibrillation of one hour or greater had atrial fibrillation only when the watch was not being worn. Patient sensitivity 83.3% or 100% during the time worn. Positive predictive value for atrial fibrillation episodes was 39.9%.
The authors concluded that an atrial fibrillation sensing smartwatch is highly sensitive to detection of atrial fibrillation and assessment of atrial fibrillation duration in an ambulatory population when compared to insertable cardiac monitor.
In our next paper, Liliana Tavares and associates examine the autonomic nervous system response to apnea in its mechanistic connection to atrial fibrillation. They study the effects of ablation of cardiac sensory neurons with resiniferatoxin, a neurotoxic transient receptor potential vanilloid one agonist.
In a canine model, apnea was induced by stopping ventilation until oxygen saturation decreased in 90%. Nerve recordings from bilateral vagal nerves left stellate ganglion and anterior right ganglion plexi were obtained before and during apnea, before and after resiniferatoxin injection in the anterior white ganglion plexi in seven animals.
Each refractory period and atrial fibrillation inducibility upon single extra stimulation was assessed before and during apnea, before and after intrapericardial resini