7 episodes

The goal of this course it to obtain an understanding of the systems that generate fossil hydrocarbons, principally oil and gas and to a lesser degree coal. Such insights form the basis for the successful exploration and production of these valuable natural resources.

Petroleum Geology Delft University of Technology

    • Podcasts

The goal of this course it to obtain an understanding of the systems that generate fossil hydrocarbons, principally oil and gas and to a lesser degree coal. Such insights form the basis for the successful exploration and production of these valuable natural resources.

    • video
    Case study

    Case study

    • 46 min
    • video
    Introduction

    Introduction

    The goal of the course is to obtain knowledge of the origins of petroleum and gas, of the accumulation conditions and the techniques to find and exploit hydrocarbons. The importance of this course is explained here.  
    Units like barrels and cubic feet are explained. Moreover, some interesting detailed facts are given like oil reserves of commercial and national companies, annual world oil consumption and the total number of gas and oil wells drilled up to today. These numbers are accompanied by several graphs.
    Hystorical developments from the start up of petroleum geology around 1900 are summarized.

    organic rocks; maturation; migration; reservoir rocks; seals; traps; exploration; production

    • 1 hr 34 min
    • video
    The carbon cycle, Organic Matter and maturation

    The carbon cycle, Organic Matter and maturation

    In this part, the carbon cycle is explained. First, the concepts of organic carbon, inorganic carbon and phytoplankton are explained since these are crucial for understanding the carbon cycle. After that the carbon cycle and moreover mass balances that go together with the carbon cycle are presented as well. || The development of Flora and Fauna is explained by interpreting the partial pressure of several gases in the atmosphere. || The composition of different biomolecules and their abundance in different organisms is explained. || Preservation of organic matter is first explained. It can be seen that source rocks are the main preservation zones, which indicates the low efficiency of the preservation process. The concepts of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and kerogen as a content of that in source rocks are eludicated. || The conversion of kerogen in source rocks to hydrocarbons like oil and natural gas are explaind. The "van Krevelen" diagram is used to illustrate this. Several types of maturation indicators, used to evaluate potential source rocks, are discussed.

    • 1 hr 33 min
    • video
    Composition of oil and gas

    Composition of oil and gas

    "The main hydrocarbon molecules present in crude oil, like paraffins, naphtenes and aromatics, are discussed. Structural formulas are shown as graphical representations. Moreover, the main method to analyze the composition of oil, gas chromatography, is explained. || After fractionating the crude oil by distillation, the main products are gas, gasoline, kerosine, diesel, oils and residuum. The applications of these fractions are all shortly discussed. For gasoline moreover, there are some extra production methods mentioned. || At the end of the lecture, everything is summarized shortly"

    • 1 hr 29 min
    • video
    Migration from source to reservoir

    Migration from source to reservoir

    We learned that oil results from kerogen, which in turn comes from organic matter. This oil is then present in source rocks. The source rocks get overpressured and oil moves from the source rocks to the reservoir rocks. Reservoir rocks can be imaged with seismic by geophysicists, and this is also where human get the oil from. Here it is explained why migration happens, and some evidence of seepages which prove migration is given. (In Petroleum Geoscience: paragraph 2.8 'Seepage of petroleum') || Primary migration is the migration from the source rock to 'something else', which is badly understood in science. The contradiction on pore sizes in source rocks and the sizes of the migrating molecules is explained. Moreover four possible primary migration mechanisms are discussed. || Secondary migration is the migration from 'something else' to the reservoir rock. This is much better understood than primary migration. Buoyancy resulting from density differences is the driving force. Some migration pathways are presented, and seals which finally stop the migration are explained. || The lecture is wrapped up with a short summary. || To illustrate the theory further, some case studies on structural traps, stratigraphical traps, combination traps and dynamic traps are presented.

    • 1 hr 21 min
    • video
    Reservoir Rock properties/Trapping

    Reservoir Rock properties/Trapping

    The ability of a solid to transmit fluid is called permeability. This permeability is defined by Darcy's law an can be influenced by properties like grain size, grain sorting, grain roundness and the texture of the rock. An example of that is the fact that rounder grains lead to higher permeabilities. || The ability of a solid to store fluid is called porosity. Voids within the solid make it possible for liquid to be encapsulated by the solid. Processes like compaction decrease the porosity due to the effects of loading. All processes that can be undergone by a potential rock reservoir with burial are summarized as diagenesis || Lateral and vertical changes in rock properties, called heterogenity, can result in changes of physical properties, called anisotropy. These layers, and with that the differences in reservoir quality, can be identified using well logs. || Petroleum geologists should use well data, seismic data and geological knowledge to build a 3D reservoir model. In Delft University of Technology, a process based simulation of barrier bar development as a function of fluctuating see levels. || The final part of the lecture is on carbonates, which are significantly different from classic reservoir rocks. One of the big differences is that most of the material is biogenic. It is not uncommon that carbonates are both the source and the reservoir rock. Carbonate depositional settings and a great variety of carbonate pore types, which influences the permeability, are discussed. || Lecture 6: A trap typically is the final place where oil an gas end up. The most important job for exploration geologists therefore is to find the traps. These traps can be either structural traps, caused by tectonic forces, or stratigraphic traps, which mainly has to do with the way the sediments have been deposited. The most typical traps, where 80-90% of the oil is trapped, are anticlines which are structural traps with arched upper surfaces. || To illustrate the theory further, some case studies on structural traps, stratigraphical traps, combination traps and dynamic traps are presented.

    • 1 hr 34 min

Top Podcasts In Podcasts

Listeners Also Subscribed To

More by Delft University of Technology