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A conference to mark the 150th anniversary of the London Underground. Organised by the Centre for Metropolitan History (IHR), in association with the London Transport Museum.
Image: Copyright Transport for London and reproduced by kind permission of t...

Going Underground: Travel Beneath the Metropolis 1863-201‪3‬ University of London

    • 歴史

A conference to mark the 150th anniversary of the London Underground. Organised by the Centre for Metropolitan History (IHR), in association with the London Transport Museum.
Image: Copyright Transport for London and reproduced by kind permission of t...

    Electricity underground: the politics of a new technology in London and Paris at the turn of the twentieth century

    Electricity underground: the politics of a new technology in London and Paris at the turn of the twentieth century

    Institute of Historical Research

    Going Underground: Travel Beneath the Metropolis 1863-2013

    Electricity underground: the politics of a new technology in London and Paris at the turn of the twentieth century

    Session 5: Underground technologies and bodies

    Carlos Lopez Galviz
    (University of London)

    A conference to mark the 150th anniversary of the London Underground. Organised by the Centre for Metropolitan History (IHR), in association with the London Transport Museum.
    Image: © Transport for London and reproduced by kind permission of the London Transport Museum

    • 25分
    Training up the escalated body

    Training up the escalated body

    Institute of Historical Research

    Going Underground: Travel Beneath the Metropolis 1863-1939

    Training up the escalated body
    Session 5: Underground technologies and bodies

    Richard Hornsey
    (University of the West of England)

    A conference to mark the 150th anniversary of the London Underground. Organised by the Centre for Metropolitan History (IHR), in association with the London Transport Museum.
    Image: © Transport for London and reproduced by kind permission of the London Transport Museum

    • 22分
    The Underground above ground

    The Underground above ground

    Institute of Historical Research

    Going Underground: Travel Beneath the Metropolis 1863-2013

    The Underground above ground
    Session 5: Underground technologies and bodies

    Lucy Maulsby
    (Northeastern University Boston)

    Abstract
    Architectural historians interested in underground transportation systems have largely focused on the representational character of the passenger stations, such as those designed by Otto Wagner in Vienna and Hector Guimard in Paris, and positioned these works within standard are historical narratives, particularly the emergence of the avant-garde in the twentieth century. In contrast, my paper analyzes and discusses the ways in which architects, engineers, and others gave visual form to the more mundane but no less important functional elements of these transportation systems. Though the primary example of the Southwest Corridor Transit Project (Stull & Lee, 1987) in Boston – which made ventilation shafts a visible part of a new public park that laced through an established residential community – I trace changing attitudes toward subway infrastructure from the late eighteenth into the twentieth century. How and to what extent have architects participated in shaping the form and character of the mechanical equipment that is now an inevitable part of the urban landscape? To what extent have changing technologies (the switch from steam to electrically powered lines) changed the character of these projects? How do the different strategies employed by designers and engineers – from the masking of these systems behind false fronts as in Victorian London to their guarded acknowledgment in the Boston example – offer different models for understanding the extent to which infrastructure participates in the representation of civic life.

    Biography
    Lucy Maulsby received her M.Phil. in the History and Theory of Architecture from Cambridge University in England, before earning her PhD at Columbia University in New York in 2007. Her scholarship focuses on the relationships between architecture, urbanism, and politics, with a particular emphasis on architecture in modern Italy. Maulsby is currently completing her book manuscript Fascism, Architecture and the Claiming of Modern Milan to be published by Toronto University Press in 2013. She has presented her research in journal articles, book chapters and at numerous national and international conferences. She is currently an Assistant Professor at Northeastern University in Boston where she teaches courses in nineteenth and twentieth century architectural and urban history.

    A conference to mark the 150th anniversary of the London Underground. Organised by the Centre for Metropolitan History (IHR), in association with the London Transport Museum.
    Image: © Transport for London and reproduced by kind permission of the London Transport Museum

    • 21分
    Crossing oceans to cross rivers: trans-Atlantic knowledge and capital in tunnelling history

    Crossing oceans to cross rivers: trans-Atlantic knowledge and capital in tunnelling history

    Institute of Historical Research

    Going Underground: Travel Beneath the Metropolis 1863-2013

    Crossing oceans to cross rivers: trans-Atlantic knowledge and capital in tunnelling history
    Session 6: Underground comparisons and connections

    Tim White
    (New Jersey City University)

    Abstract: Not long after the London Underground opened, American railroad companies sought to tunnel under the Hudson River, so they could connect their lines from New York City to all points west. Although the earliest, failed tunnelling effort in 1874 was strictly American, the second attempt was decidedly British. The 1888 Hudson River Tunnel Company was not only backed by British capital, but also relied upon the "greathead shield", important for London's Tower Subway. It also failed to complete the tunnel under the mile-wide Hudson, but the half-finished sections it left behind facilitated the completion of a railroad tunnel in 1908. The Chief Engineer for this final push was none other than Charles M. Jacobs, a brit.
    This paper is about trans-Atlantic transfers of knowledge and capital in late 19th and early 20th century tunnel projects, with a focus on the efforts to tunnel under the Hudson River. Charles M. Jacobs, the British mastermind behind New York's first subaqueous gas tunnels in 1894, the 1908Hudson & Manhattan tunnels, and the 1910 tunnels of the Pennsylvania Railroad, was certainly a key player in these transfers, but the paper is not just about him. In addition to Jacobs, Norwegian-born Ole Singstad was crucial to both the 1908 project and the Holland Tunnel, while the subterranean tracks of the original Pennsylvania Station were inspired by the Gare de Orsay in Paris. For too long, American transportation historians have written about tunnelling without a proper trans-Atlantic lens. This paper will redress this imbalance.

    Biography: Tim White completed his Ph.D. in History at Columbia University with Kenneth Jackson in 2007, and is now an Assistant Professor of History at New Jersey City University. As a scholar, he has published a review essay in the Journal of Urban History, a full-length, peer-reviewed essay in Performing Arts Resources, and has a manuscript under contract and forthcoming from The University of Pennsylvania Press. This manuscript chronicles the theatre-related craftwork (costumes, scenery, lights, shoes, etc.) of the American stage from 1880-1980. By highlighting these activities as they dominated and then abandoned Times Square over the course of many decades, White argues that planning policy and structural economic shift transformed Times Square, if only briefly, into the Flint, Michigan, of American popular culture. It presents the departure of theatre-related craft from Times Square in the 1960s and 1970s as a major cause of the larger theatre district's struggles with crime, prostitution, and drugs. His new research focuses on New York Harbor, its regional economy, and the late 19th and early 20th century tunnelling projects that were crucial to its continued growth.

    A conference to mark the 150th anniversary of the London Underground. Organised by the Centre for Metropolitan History (IHR), in association with the London Transport Museum.
    Image: © Transport for London and reproduced by kind permission of the London Transport Museum

    • 16分
    A transatlantic connection: Philadelphia, London, and the urban transit at the turn of the twentieth century

    A transatlantic connection: Philadelphia, London, and the urban transit at the turn of the twentieth century

    Institute of Historical Research

    Going Underground: Travel Beneath the Metropolis 1863-2013

    A transatlantic connection: Philadelphia, London, and the urban transit at the turn of the twentieth century

    Jim Wolfinger
    (DePaul University)

    Abstract: By American standards, Philadelphia was a large, dense, and old city by the late nineteenth century. Concentrated at the narrow point of land bounded by the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, the city proper held a population of some 850,000 people in 1880 and nearly double that in 1910. One of the most pressing questions for political and financial leaders was how to move people and goods through such a congested city. Their answers were not so different from, and in some ways drew on, what they saw in London.
    As early as the 1860s and for half a century afterwards, representatives involved in transportation policy in the two cities exchanged correspondence about trams and subways. In particular, they discussed technological innovation, the public reception of and resistance to transportation, and the connection between transit systems and urban growth. To Philadelphia boosters, many of whom worried about falling behind New York City and harbored a certain Anglophilia, London offered a model of modernization and growth. Swift, economical transportation was at the core of that model.

    This paper focuses on the development of Philadelphia's transit system a century or more ago, while highlighting the connections between the Quaker City and London. The two cities participated in a transnational exchange of ideas that Philadelphians believed would help them keep up with the modern world. By offering an international comparative perspective, this paper should fit well with the conference's call for papers that examine the political, social, and planning histories of subways.

    Biography: James Wolfinger is an associate professor of History and Education at DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois. His research and teaching focus on urban, political, labor, and African American history in the twentieth century. He is the author of Philadelphia Divided: Race and Politics in the City of Brotherly Love (University of North Carolina Press, 2007) as well as numerous articles and reviews. He has received fellowships and grants from the Organization of American Historians, American Philosophical Society, and the Newberry Library. He is currently working on an urban and labor history of public transportation in Philadelphia from the 1880s to the 1960s tentatively titled "Capital’s Quest: Management, Labor, and the Search for Social Control in Philadelphia’s Mass Transit Industry."

    A conference to mark the 150th anniversary of the London Underground. Organised by the Centre for Metropolitan History (IHR), in association with the London Transport Museum.
    Image: © Transport for London and reproduced by kind permission of the London Transport Museum

    • 22分
    Hitchcock's Underground

    Hitchcock's Underground

    Institute of Historical Research

    Going Underground: Travel Beneath the Metropolis 1863-2013

    Hitchcock's Underground
    Session 8: The Underground and film

    David Pike
    (American University Washington)

    Abstract: “Hitchcock’s Underground” studies the fascinating intersection between one of cinema’s foremost directors and perhaps London’s most frequently filmed settings. Unlike a number of his contemporaries—Fritz Lang, to name a prominent example—Alfred Hitchcock used underground settings sparingly in his career. He generally preferred to create suspense from the paradox of entrapment in an open space than the more conventional spatial dynamic of confinement below the ground. The primary exception to this pattern is the cellar setting in the Hollywood films Notorious and Psycho; however, this paper will examine the other use Hitchcock made of subterranean—the London Underground as setting in his London films of the 1920s. The Underground figures physically or as a plot element in Downhill (1927), Blackmail (1929), Rich and Strange (1931), and Sabotage (1936), making it a significant setting among his London films, and making his engagement with the setting one of the most sustained of the period. This paper will present the films in the context of cinematic representations of the Underground during the interwar years—key years in its development as a spatial icon of city—and in the context of Hitchcock’s extensive meditation on the cityscape of London from the first film he directed (Number 13, 1922) until he left for Hollywood during the war. For Hitchcock, the Underground was a photogenic space of urban modernity, but it was not, as it had been for the 19th century and would continue to be in many cinematic cityscapes, a space distinct from the world above.

    Biography: David L. Pike is Professor in the Department of Literature, American University, Washington DC. He is the author of Metropolis on the Styx: The Underworlds of Modern Urban Culture, 1800–2001 (2007) and Subterranean Cities: The World beneath Paris and London 1800–1945 (2005), shortlisted for the 2006 Modernist Studies Association book prize, and of articles on medieval literature, modernism, film, and Paris and London. From 1993 to 1995, Professor Pike was Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow in the Society of Fellows in the Humanities at Columbia University.

    A conference to mark the 150th anniversary of the London Underground. Organised by the Centre for Metropolitan History (IHR), in association with the London Transport Museum.
    Image: © Transport for London and reproduced by kind permission of the London Transport Museum

    • 19分

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