299 episodios

The Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO) serves its readers as the single most credible, authoritative resource for disseminating significant clinical oncology research. Usually presented in conjunction with an original report and an editorial published on www.jco.org, the JCO podcasts enable readers to stay current on the latest research while placing the results into a clinically useful context.

Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO) Podcast American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)

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The Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO) serves its readers as the single most credible, authoritative resource for disseminating significant clinical oncology research. Usually presented in conjunction with an original report and an editorial published on www.jco.org, the JCO podcasts enable readers to stay current on the latest research while placing the results into a clinically useful context.

    Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Use in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Closer Look

    Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Use in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Closer Look

    Towards improved characterization of immune-related adverse events in the setting of pre-existing autoimmune disease.
    TRANSCRIPT
    This JCO Podcast provides observations and commentary on the JCO article “Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Patients with Preexisting Inflammatory Bowel Disease”, by Abu-Sbeih et al. My name is Katy Tsai, and I am Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Division of Hematology/Oncology at the University of California, San Francisco. My oncologic specialty is the treatment of advanced melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers.
     
    Immune checkpoint inhibitors, referred to as ICIs in this podcast, have transformed the landscape of treatment options in oncology. While ICIs were first approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma in 2011, since that time, ICIs have shown activity in a variety of other histologies. Anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1, with or without anti-CTLA-4, are now approved for the treatment of lung cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and many others. While ICIs can result in durable responses, their continued use can be limited by the development of immune-related adverse eventsimmune-related adverse events. Because these events are believed to be autoimmune in nature, there are intuitive safety concerns about ICI use in patients with known autoimmune disease. Can patients with pre-existing autoimmune disease be safely treated with ICI? Are these patients more likely to experience immune-related adverse events related to their autoimmune disease? Is this risk increased if their autoimmune disease is severe, with a history of required immunosuppression? These are all important questions faced by healthcare providers, questions which are not well studied due to the exclusion of patients with known autoimmune disease from pivotal ICI clinical trials.
     
    To address these questions, Abu-Sbeih and colleagues chose to focus on ICI use in patients with pre-existing inflammatory bowel disease. This is a clinically relevant population of interest, given the relatively high incidence of immune-related diarrhea and colitis with ICI use; these immune-related adverse events occur in almost half of patients receiving combination anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 or PD-L1, about one-third of patients receiving anti-CTLA-4, and less frequently in patients receiving anti-PD-1 or PD-L1 alone. Abu-Sbeih and colleagues conducted a retrospective, multicenter study in which 102 patients – half with Crohn’s disease, half with ulcerative colitis – received ICI between 2010 and 2019. 17 patients received anti-CTLA-4, and 85 received anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1. This is a notable cohort of patients, as previous meta-analyses have reported on the safety of ICI use in much smaller numbers of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and with less detailed clinical characterization of their inflammatory bowel disease. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the risk of gastrointestinal, or GI, adverse events, and was compared to a control population of 11,377 ICI-treated patients without inflammatory bowel disease, from the same participating institutions.
     
    An important observation made by the authors was that the rate of GI immune-related adverse events in the inflammatory bowel disease cohort was significantly higher at 41%, compared to 11% in the non-inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Univariate analysis identified anti-CTLA-4 (given as monotherapy or in combination) as a risk factor for GI immune-related adverse events compared to anti-PD-1/L1 therapy but showed only a tendency toward significance in multivariate analysis, as did inflammatory bowel disease involving the colon. Although none of the collected clinical variables reached significance in multivariate analysis, the authors’ analysis of outcomes in the inflammatory bowel disease cohort i

    • 9 min
    The High Prevalence of Exercise Intolerance in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer Is Predictive of All-Cause Mortality

    The High Prevalence of Exercise Intolerance in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer Is Predictive of All-Cause Mortality

    This podcast describes a study examining aerobic capacity in a cohort of over 1200 adult survivors of childhood cancer and related impairments of cardiac, pulmonary and neuromuscular body systems, to understand how aerobic capacity influences all-cause mortality.
    TRANSCRIPT
    This JCO Podcast provides observations and commentary on the JCO article 'Exercise Intolerance, Mortality, and Organ System Impairment in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer' by Ness et al. My name is Kristin Campbell, and I am a licenced physical therapist and associate professor in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. My oncologic specialty is in rehabilitation, primarily related to breast cancer.
    Exercise intolerance is a global measure of functional capacity that reflects the complex integration of body systems. It is well established in the general population that exercise intolerance is predictive of future cardiovascular health and mortality. Whether this relationship also existed for adult survivors of childhood cancer was examined by Ness and colleagues in the article that accompanies this podcast. . In the largest study to date of its kind, this manuscript reports on a comprehensive and methodologically rigorous examination of exercise intolerance measured by a gold standard maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test in over 1200 adult survivors of childhood cancer who are part of the St. Jude’s Lifetime Cohort Study.
    The first main finding is the low levels of exercise capacity in this sample of childhood cancer survivors despite a relatively young mean age of 35 years. The observed maximal aerobic capacity, or VO2peak, ranged on average between 25-27 ml/kg/min, which fall into the “poor” or “very poor” categories of age and sex matched normative values. Compared to 285 community controls who were friends or family members of the cohort patients, the observed maximal aerobic capacity values for childhood cancer survivors were on average 22% lower. In fact, these values are actually more consistent with values seen in healthy adults in their seventies or eighties. Furthermore, the low value of maximal aerobic capacity may also be an underestimate. Thirteen percent of individuals in the St. Jude’s cohort who agreed to participate in the study were not cleared to undertake the maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test due to recent diagnosis of cardiac or pulmonary disease, or lab values and symptoms indicating cardiac or pulmonary issues. This suggests that the prevalence of exercise intolerance may be even greater in a real-world clinical setting than that observed in this cohort.
    To examine the association between exercise intolerance and mortality, the authors defined exercise intolerance as a maximal aerobic capacity of A unique feature of this study is that the authors also undertook comprehensive measures of host, treatment, and lifestyle factors to better understand how these factors influence exercise intolerance. These additional measures included cardiac imaging at rest, autonomic response, measured by blood pressure response to the maximal graded exercise test, standard pulmonary function testing, quadriceps strength testing, and peripheral sensorimotor function using the modified total neuropathy scale. This data provides a rare look into the acute and chronic responses to exercise of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, autonomic and neuromuscular systems in those exposed or not exposed to cardiotoxic agents and will appeal to those an interest in exercise physiology. Odds of exercise intolerance were highest with reporting Of note, the type of treatment received impacted the presentation of exercise intolerance. Lower exercise tolerance was observed in individuals who received >350 mg/m2 of anthracyclines, >30 Gy of chest radiation, >20 Gy of cranial radiation and receipt of carboplati

    • 8 min
    Leptomeningeal Disease in EGFR-Mutated Lung Cancer: Can We Finally Define a Standard Treatment?

    Leptomeningeal Disease in EGFR-Mutated Lung Cancer: Can We Finally Define a Standard Treatment?

    This podcast describes the results of the BLOOM study, evaluating the efficacy of osimertinib in EGFR-mutated lung cancer with leptomeningeal disease after failure of prior EGFR TKI therapy.
    TRANSCRIPT
    This JCO Podcast provides observations and commentary on the JCO article “Osimertinib In Patients With Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Leptomeningeal Metastases: The BLOOM Study” by Yang et al. My name is Jürgen Wolf and I am the medical director of the Center for Integrated Oncology at the University Hospital of Cologne in Germany. I am a medical oncologist with expertise in personalized lung cancer care.
     
    About 10% of patients with advanced EGFR-mutated lung cancer suffer from leptomeningeal disease. While this disease manifestation in non-small-cell lung cancer is generally associated with a particularly poor prognosis, with survival times of only a few months, the question arises whether treatment with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors might enable a better disease control. Most studies evaluating the efficacy of 1st and 2nd generation EGFR-TKIs in leptomeningeal disease were retrospective and difficult to interpret, given the heterogeneity of the disease as well as of the preceding treatment procedures. Small prospective studies with patient numbers below 20 tested standard dose erlotinib or afatinib as well as high-dose pulsatile EGFR TKI treatment and reported disappointing results with survival times of around 4 months only.
     
    The 3rd generation EGFR TKI osimertinib initially was approved for T790M positive failure of 1st and 2nd generation EGFR TKIs and is now commonly regarded as 1st line standard treatment for EGFR-mutated lung cancer based on a superior progression-free survival, overall survival and toxicity profile. In studies with primates and healthy volunteers, osimertinib has been shown to exert a higher blood-brain barrier permeability and a higher brain exposure compared with other TKIs. In the AURA clinical development program for osimertinib, 22 patients with T790M-positive relapse after EGFR TKI treatment and leptomeningeal disease were retrospectively identified, and an impressive median overall survival of 18.8 months was reported. A small prospective Japanese trial evaluated osimertinib in 13 patients with T790M-positive leptomeningeal disease which, however, could be confirmed only in 5 patients. Responses were seen in some patients, and the median progression free survival for all patients was reported with 7.2 months.
     
    The BLOOM study part B, which is discussed in this podcast, is a multicenter phase I study evaluating osimertinib in EGFR-mutated lung cancer patients with leptomeningeal metastases and failure of previous EGFR TKI treatment. Study objectives were the assessment of clinical parameters like response, overall survival neurological status, and safety but also pharmacokinetics in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Main inclusion criteria included confirmed diagnosis of EGFR Exon 19 deletion or L858R mutation and confirmation of leptomeningeal disease by positive cytology of cerebrospinal fluid and at least one leptomeningeal site assessable by MRI. There were two sequential cohorts, one unselected for the T790M mutation and with stable non-CNS disease at enrollment, and one for T790M positive patients without the requirement for stable non-CNS disease. Osimertinib dose was 160 mg once daily, which is twice the approved dose. Besides investigator-based response assessment, according to RECIST, leptomeningeal disease was also assessed by a neuroradiological blinded central review according to the RANO-LM working group criteria, which integrates clinical examination, cerebrospinal fluid cytology and neuraxis MRI.
     
    41 patients from South Korea and Taiwan were included, 20 in the unselected and 21 in the T790M-positive cohor

    • 10 min
    Advancing Treatment Options for Mismatch Repair-Deficient Metastatic Colorectal Cancers

    Advancing Treatment Options for Mismatch Repair-Deficient Metastatic Colorectal Cancers

    This podcast reviews the results of KEYNOTE 164 investigating the use of pembrolizumab for mismatch repair deficient metastatic colorectal cancer, the place of this agent in the current clinical paradigm, and future directions to identify which patients are most likely to benefit from this treatment strategy.
    TRANSCRIPT
    This JCO Podcast provides observations and commentary on the JCO article 'A Phase II, Open-Label Study of Pembrolizumab in Treatment-Refractory, Microsatellite Instability-High/Mismatch Repair-Deficient Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: KEYNOTE-164' by Le et al. My name is Dustin Deming, and I am an associate professor at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center in Madison, Wisconsin. My oncologic specialty is gastrointestinal oncology.


    Microsatellite instability high status or mismatch repair deficiency is found in approximately 15% of early stage colorectal cancers, but only 3-4% of metastatic colorectal cancer. The mechanisms by which these cancers acquire their DNA repair aberrations can vary, including germline mutations, somatic mutations and promoter methylation, which is often observed in the setting of the hypermethylation phenotype associated with BRAF mutations. This distinct colorectal cancer subtype is of particular interest for immunotherapy strategies as the lack of adequate mismatch repair can lead to 1000s of mutations and also fusions leading to the potential for expression of more neoantigens.
     
    This world-wide phase 2, open-label study enrolled 124 patients with microsatellite instability high or metastatic mismatch repair deficient colorectal cancer following 2 or more lines of standard therapy in cohort A and following 1 or more lines of therapy in cohort B. Patients received pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks, up to 2 years, until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal. The primary endpoint was objective response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 by independent central review and secondary endpoints included duration of response progression-free survival, overall survival, safety and tolerability.
     
    At the time of this report the median follow-up for cohort A was 31.3 months and 24.2 months for cohort B. The objective response rate was 33% for both cohorts. This includes 7 patients who achieved a complete response. The median PFS was 2.3 months for cohort A and 4.1 months for cohort B. For those patients that developed an objective response the duration of response was quite prolonged with the median duration of response not reached in either cohort. The median overall survival was 31.4 months for cohort A and not reached in cohort B. This treatment was well-tolerated in this population with the most common toxicities being fatigue, pancreatitis, and increased alanine aminotransferase or lipase.
     
    Overall pembrolizumab is an exciting addition to the treatment strategy for patients with metastatic mismatch repair deficient cancers. Based on these results, in part, this agent is now FDA approved for patients with previously treated microsatellite instability high or mismatch repair deficient metastatic colon cancers after fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan, and for patients also for non-colorectal solid tumors following at least one prior therapy, regardless of tumor type or origin. This was the first FDA approval of a tumor histology agnostic anticancer therapy.
     
    Long-term follow-up from this, and similar cohorts, is required to further define the duration of response for these patients, as there is hope that some of these patients could even be cured. Unfortunately, it is only a minority of patients that seem to benefit from this approach as demonstrated by the short median progression free survival in both cohorts. A better understanding of which patients are likely to benefit from immunotherapy approaches are

    • 8 min
    Keeping Mycosis Fungoides in Check: A Study of Pembrolizumab for Relapsed/Refractory MF and Sezary Syndrome

    Keeping Mycosis Fungoides in Check: A Study of Pembrolizumab for Relapsed/Refractory MF and Sezary Syndrome

    This podcast evaluates results from a phase II clinical trial of pembrolizumab for relapsed Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome in the context of the current systemic treatment landscape for this disease.
    TRANSCRIPT
    This JCO Podcast provides observations and commentary on the JCO article "Pembrolizumab in Relapsed and Refractory Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome: A Multicenter Phase II Study" by Khodadoust et al. My name is Jennifer Amengual, and I am an Assistant Professor of Medicine at the Columbia University Irving Medical Center in New York, New York, USA. My oncologic specialty is lymphoma.
    Mycosis fungoides, otherwise known as MF, and Sezary Syndrome, its leukemic variant, are rare subtypes of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Although most patients with MF have indolent disease, those with advanced stage MF often experience resistance to systemic therapy with a persistent and progressive disease course, which has a negative impact on overall well-being and survival. Patients may have intense pruritus, which can then put them at increased risk for staphylococcus infection, sepsis and in turn can trigger disease flare.
    Advanced-stage MF is a chronic disease that is not considered curable; therefore, it is necessary to consider management strategies that provide symptom relief and can be maintained over a long period of time. Most patients cycle through a multitude of therapies, often including skin-directed and, later, systemic therapies. Many of the acceptable therapies are derived from retrospective studies or single-arm trials; therefore, it is not possible to objectively compare outcomes and toxicity. In order to put the outcomes of pembrolizumab in context of other acceptable treatment modalities, I will discuss some of these treatments now.
    Systemic retinoids, such as bexarotene, are taken orally and can induce an overall response of 45-55%. The drug is well tolerated but can lead to hypertriglyceridemia and hypothyroidism, requiring monthly monitoring and frequent treatment with lipid-lowering agents and thyroid hormone replacement.
    Low-dose methotrexate, administered either orally or by intravenous infusion weekly, can lead to response rates between 30 and 50%. Common side-effects include mucositis, cytopenias and gastrointestinal upset. Pralatrexate is a novel antifolate drug that when studied using half the dose of that which is approved for PTCL , induced a 45% response rate for patients with MF. The treatment is also well tolerated, with the most common side-effects being mucositis and thrombocytopenia.
    There are 2 histone deacetylase inhibitors approved for use in MF and Sezary Syndrome. Both romidepsin and vorinostat have overlapping toxicity profiles, including gastrointestinal disturbances, fatigue, anorexia, and cytopenias. Romidepsin is also associated with ECG abnormalities. In patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma, romidepsin has demonstrated a response rate of 34% and is associated with a median duration of response of 15 months. Vorinostat, an oral drug, has demonstrated a response rate of 30%.
    Recently, 2 biologics have been in used for patients with MF. Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody drug conjugate which targets the surface marker CD30 and brings monomethyl auristatin E into the cell. It is associated with a response rate of 70% in MF. Responses are significantly better in those with greater than 5% of CD30 expression. The most common side-effect is peripheral neuropathy. Mogamulizumab is a humanized antibody directed against the chemokine receptor CCR4.  This agent was studied in a randomized trial compared to vorinostat, where it led to a PFS of 7.7 months and response rate of 28%. The most common adverse events were attributed to infusion reactions, rash, diarrhea, and fatigue. There was also an increased risk of graft-versus-host disease in patients who subsequently went on to a

    • 9 min
    What’s in a Name? An Introductory Guide

    What’s in a Name? An Introductory Guide

    This podcast discusses the results and implications of a recent study on gender bias in speaker introductions at an international oncology conference.
    This JCO Podcast provides observations and commentary on the JCO article "Evaluating Unconscious Bias: Speaker Introductions at an International Oncology Conference" by Duma et al. My name is Dr. Tatiana Prowell. I am an Associate Professor of Oncology at Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and Breast Cancer Scientific Liaison at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in Silver Spring, Maryland. My oncologic specialty is breast cancer.


    In the article that accompanies this podcast, Duma and colleagues report the results of a retrospective observational study of speaker introductions at two consecutive years of ASCO Annual Meetings. The investigators hypothesized that female speakers in oral sessions would be introduced with a professional form of address less frequently than male speakers. For the purposes of the study, they defined a professional address as use of a title such as Professor or Doctor, followed by the speaker’s full name or last name, or the speaker’s full name followed by doctoral degree. A team of four male and four female reviewers analyzed 781 video recordings of oral sessions from the 2017 and 2018 ASCO Annual Meetings and recorded the gender of the introducer and speaker and how the speaker was introduced. They found that female speakers received a professional form of address 62% of the time whereas male speakers were introduced professionally 81% of the time, a difference that was statistically significant. Duma and her colleagues also assessed whether the gender of the introducer was associated with a difference in the likelihood of receiving a professional introduction. They found that male moderators introduced female speakers professionally a little more than half the time, whereas they introduced men professionally in 80% of cases.  Interestingly, when serving as introducers, women were more likely than men to include a professional form of address, which they did about three-quarters of the time, regardless of whether they were introducing men or women.  Perhaps the most striking result of the study was that one in six female speakers was introduced by her first name only, a surprising degree of informality for a high-profile conference like the ASCO Annual Meeting, which draws more than 40,000 attendees per year. By comparison, male speakers were introduced by first name alone in just 3% of presentations. In a multivariate analysis that included gender, degree, academic rank and geographic location of the speaker’s institution, male speakers were 2.5 times more likely to receive a professional introduction compared to female speakers. 
     
    This study adds to a growing body of literature in medicine investigating the prevalence of gender bias in speaker introductions. For example, previous studies of speaker introductions over a 3 year period of Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Grand Rounds and at an American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Annual Meeting reported similar findings. In both cases, female speakers were less likely than men to be introduced using a professional form of address, and women introducers more consistently referred to speakers by a professional title, regardless of whether the speaker they were introducing happened to be a man or a woman.
     
    This study raises two key questions: why do we see this, and how can we fix it? A speaker introduction, especially at an international conference, is by definition a formal ritual, and yet one so familiar to us that we may have lost sight of its purpose. It would be easy enough for speakers to introduce themselves. Every speaker has an opening slide that shows his or her name and institutional affiliation. So why choose someone, and often someone well-known within the fi

    • 9 min

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