18 avsnitt

How are people affected by overcrowding, traffic congestion, and noise? Why do people litter or vandalize their environments? How do buildings affect their occupants? Does the architectural design of apartment buildings influence patterns of neighboring and friendship formation? Why do people consume scarce environmental resources? Can residential, work, and neighborhood settings be designed to reduce stress, increase productivity, and promote physical activity? These are some of the questions that have concerned environmental psychologists.

Environmental psychology is the study of human behavior and well-being in relation to the large-scale, sociophysical environment. The term, large-scale environment, refers to places such as homes, offices, neighborhoods, and whole communities. These places can be described in terms of several physical and social dimensions, including their geographical location, architectural design, membership and social organization. The term, sociophysical environment, reflects the assumption that the physical and social dimensions of places are closely intertwined. The architectural design of a housing complex, for example, can exert a subtle but substantial impact on the friendship patterns that develop among residents. This course emphasizes the interdependence between physical and social aspects of places, rather than viewing these dimensions as separate and isolated.

Environmental Psychology - PPD151 / PSYBEH171S / PUBHLTH151 UC Irvine

    • Samhällsvetenskap

How are people affected by overcrowding, traffic congestion, and noise? Why do people litter or vandalize their environments? How do buildings affect their occupants? Does the architectural design of apartment buildings influence patterns of neighboring and friendship formation? Why do people consume scarce environmental resources? Can residential, work, and neighborhood settings be designed to reduce stress, increase productivity, and promote physical activity? These are some of the questions that have concerned environmental psychologists.

Environmental psychology is the study of human behavior and well-being in relation to the large-scale, sociophysical environment. The term, large-scale environment, refers to places such as homes, offices, neighborhoods, and whole communities. These places can be described in terms of several physical and social dimensions, including their geographical location, architectural design, membership and social organization. The term, sociophysical environment, reflects the assumption that the physical and social dimensions of places are closely intertwined. The architectural design of a housing complex, for example, can exert a subtle but substantial impact on the friendship patterns that develop among residents. This course emphasizes the interdependence between physical and social aspects of places, rather than viewing these dimensions as separate and isolated.

    • video
    Lecture 01 – Introduction to Environmental Psychology and Overview of the Course

    Lecture 01 – Introduction to Environmental Psychology and Overview of the Course

    This lecture provides an introductory overview of major topics that have been investigated in the field of environmental psychology. Environmental psychology is broadly defined as the study of people’s relationships with their everyday social and physical surroundings. People’s everyday environments include their homes, neighborhoods, classrooms, workplaces, health care settings, community public spaces, as well as more remote regional and global influences on their lives. These environments encompass both built (or human-designed) and natural elements, and in many instances, both place-based and virtual features. Among the research topics discussed in this lecture are the behavioral and health effects of “tight spaces” and dysfunctional architecture, urban stressors (including high levels of noise, population density, and traffic congestion), and the restorative capacity of natural environments to reduce psychological and physiological stress. Also examined are key processes that affect individuals’ and groups’ responses to their surroundings—for example, their spatial cognition, environmental personalization and territorial behavior, personal space, privacy regulation, information overload and “continuous partial attention”. Finally, the interdependence between global environmental conditions and people’s experiences of their local place-based environments is discussed.

    • 1 tim. 3 min
    • video
    Lecture 02 – Applying Principles of Environmental Psychology to the Analysis and Resolution of Community Problems

    Lecture 02 – Applying Principles of Environmental Psychology to the Analysis and Resolution of Community Problems

    This lecture focuses on a contemporary societal problem, the obesity epidemic in the US and other countries, to illustrate how certain core principles of environmental psychology—including ecological and interdisciplinary analyses of people’s relations with their surroundings, can be applied to better understand complex social and environmental problems. Multiple environmental contributors to the obesity crisis in the US are discussed. Some of these etiologic factors are rooted in the design of our physical environments whereas others reside in the power of social networks to influence our behavior and well-being. In keeping with the action research orientation of environmental psychology, ecological and interdisciplinary analyses of contributors to the obesity crisis provide a foundation for establishing evidence-based public policies and community interventions to improve environmental quality and public health.

    • 59 min
    • video
    Lecture 03 – Historical Origins and Major Assumptions of the Ecological Paradigm

    Lecture 03 – Historical Origins and Major Assumptions of the Ecological Paradigm

    This lecture outlines the development and core assumptions of the ecological paradigm as it has evolved in the fields of biology, sociology, psychology, and public health. The Chicago School of Human Ecology is described and contrasted with broader-gauged analyses of human ecosystems including the Sociocultural School of Human Ecology and more recent conceptualizations of Social Ecology. The Chicago School, based largely on biological and economic principles, neglected the role of psychological, cultural, architectural, and regulatory influences on peoples’ relations with their environments. The fields of social ecology and environmental psychology give greater attention to the interplay among these diverse factors, and to considerations of environmental justice and equitable access of all community members to healthful surroundings.

    • 55 min
    • video
    Lecture 04 – Principles of Systems Theory, Physiological and Psychological Stress

    Lecture 04 – Principles of Systems Theory, Physiological and Psychological Stress

    This lecture provides an overview of systems theory and the concepts of physiological and psychological stress. As discussed in earlier lectures, the ecological paradigm and systems theory developed in response to narrower, deterministic explanations of environmental influences on human behavior and well-being. In ecological systems analyses, the degree of fit or congruence achieved by people and their surroundings depends on a variety of context-specific circumstances, such as spatial arrangements and staffing levels of behavior settings, personality orientations, social and cultural norms. When the levels of fit between people and their surroundings are low, physiological and psychological stress can arise—for example, in highly demanding or constraining environments. Examples of systems processes are presented at different levels of analysis ranging from individuals, small groups, and entire populations. The distinction between deviation-countering and deviation-amplifying systems is also discussed.

    • 1 tim. 8 min
    • video
    Lecture 05 – Environmental Cognition

    Lecture 05 – Environmental Cognition

    This lecture focuses on mental processes by which individuals form spatial memories, or cognitive maps, of their physical and social environments. The distinction between individuals’ perceptions of discrete objects as compared to their interpretations and memories of their large-scale, socio-physical surroundings (e.g., neighborhoods, workplaces, public spaces) is discussed. Key features of physical environments that people use to form cognitive maps of their spatial surroundings include paths or transit routes; geographic districts and their boundaries or edges; nodes (gathering places); and landmarks (major points of interest). Urban planners’ arrangement and combination of these elements contribute to the overall imageability (capacity to evoke strong place memories) and legibility (clarity and coherence) of environments. At the same time, the social and cultural meanings that become associated with some environments (such as historical, religious, and commemorative sites) contribute to their social imagability, as distinct from their physical imagability. The physical imagability of environments depends more on their architectural and natural features than on the sociocultural meanings associated with certain places.

    • 30 min
    • video
    Lecture 06 – Environment and Personality

    Lecture 06 – Environment and Personality

    Personality is defined as a relatively stable set of personal attributes that characterize an individual and are observable by others across a variety of situations and settings. This lecture examines several different facets of the relationship between individuals’ personality and their socio-physical surroundings including: (1) the ways in which personal traits influence people’s interpretations of and reactions to particular places; and the (2) the distinctive qualities or ambiance of places that exert strong influence on the development of individuals’ personality characteristics, as well as their place identity or emotional identification with certain environments. Also explored are the ways in which particular personality traits such as sensation-seeking tendency, sense of coherence, and psychological hardiness mediate the effects of individuals’ exposure to particular places and events on their behavior, cognition, emotional and physical well-being.

    • 1 tim.

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