10 avsnitt

Ocean Governance Podcast –
a podcast about ocean governance research

This podcast is dedicated to discussing recent publications from legal, social sciences and interdisciplinary journals dealing with ocean governance issues broadly construed. Being lawyers, we do this from a predominantly legal perspective but with a strong interest in the perspectives and contributions of other disciplines.

The aim is to draw attention to interesting publications, hopefully to make them accessible and to stimulate further discussion in different forums.


Hosts for the podcast are professor David Langlet and PhD candidate Aron Westholm, and it is brought to you by the Ocean Governance Group at the Law Department, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg. The group brings together various legal sub-disciplines, including law of the sea, EU law, environmental law, energy law, planning law and administrative law to bear upon current practical and intellectual challenges relating to human interaction with the oceans.

Ocean Governance Podcast Ocean Governance Podcast

    • Vetenskap

Ocean Governance Podcast –
a podcast about ocean governance research

This podcast is dedicated to discussing recent publications from legal, social sciences and interdisciplinary journals dealing with ocean governance issues broadly construed. Being lawyers, we do this from a predominantly legal perspective but with a strong interest in the perspectives and contributions of other disciplines.

The aim is to draw attention to interesting publications, hopefully to make them accessible and to stimulate further discussion in different forums.


Hosts for the podcast are professor David Langlet and PhD candidate Aron Westholm, and it is brought to you by the Ocean Governance Group at the Law Department, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg. The group brings together various legal sub-disciplines, including law of the sea, EU law, environmental law, energy law, planning law and administrative law to bear upon current practical and intellectual challenges relating to human interaction with the oceans.

    Episode 10 - Understanding MPAs

    Episode 10 - Understanding MPAs

    The tenth episode of the Ocean Governance Podcast focuses on marine protected areas (MPAs). While being a well-established and much-discussed instrument for protection of the marine environment, the three articles discussed in this episode show that interesting perspectives can still be added to the discourse on MPAs.

    Our first article looks at the blending of rationales in designating and managing many large-scale MPAs in areas with a strong military legacy and sometimes also a remaining military presence. Although not drawing strong general conclusions about the effects of military legacies or military activities in MPAs, the author opens up an interesting discussion on the multiple interests and legacies that can affect marine areas and shape the conditions for their conservation and management.

    The second article, with a message directed to the ongoing negotiations on protection of biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction, calls for the elaboration of new dynamic management tools, including mobile MPAs to be employed in high seas areas. Although mobile MPAs entail practical and policy challenges, the article provides strong arguments both for the utility and need of such an instrument and points to factors that could facilitate the practical operation of such MPAs. Not least rapid technological development in areas such as animal tracking, vessel monitoring and communication make such measures practically feasible.

    The third article constructively challenges the oft-repeated idea that MPAs are a good way of strengthening the resilience of marine ecosystems in the face of climate change. Noting the scarcity of empirical support for ecosystems within MPAs being less negatively affected by climate change related pressures such as rising water temperatures or severe storms, the authors point to factors that may actually make protected areas (seem) more rather than less vulnerable. This, however, does not mean that MPAs cannot be useful in countering the effects of climate change although their effectiveness may be more limited than often thought, and also require integrating climate change factors in the designation of protected areas.
    The three articles discussed in this episode are:

    A. E Bates, et al., Climate resilience in marine protected areas and the ‘Protection Paradox’, Biological Conservation 236 (2019), 305–314.

    S. M. Maxwell, K. M. Gjerde, M. G. Conners, and L. B. Crowde, Mobile protected areas for biodiversity on the high seas - Protecting mobile marine species and habitats under climate change will require innovative and dynamic tools, Science 367:6475 (2020), 252-254.

    E. M. De Santo, Militarized marine protected areas in overseas territories: Conserving biodiversity, geopolitical positioning, and securing resources in the 21st century, Ocean and Coastal Management 184 (2020), 105006.

    If you want to comment on the content or otherwise communicate with us, please do so by sending an email to: aron.westholm@law.gu.se.

    We hope that you will enjoy listening!

    • 49 min
    Episode 9 - The Ecosystem Approach – Any Good For Marine Spatial Planning?

    Episode 9 - The Ecosystem Approach – Any Good For Marine Spatial Planning?

    In this ninth episode of the Ocean Governance Podcast, we use a recent text of our own, published within the Pan Baltic Scope project, as a point of departure to discuss the meaning and utility of the ecosystem approach in the context of marine spatial planning (MSP). The publication synthesizes research publications and relevant policy documents with the aim of establishing a ‘state of the art’ for operationalization of the ecosystem approach in MSP. This is done as a basis for an assessment of the “Guideline for the implementation of ecosystem-based approach in Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) in the Baltic Sea area” adopted/approved in 2016 by VASAB (‘Vision and Strategies around the Baltic Sea’) and HELCOM (the Helsinki Commission). The publication was commissioned by the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, as part of the agency’s participation in the regional MSP collaboration within the Pan Baltic Scope project.

    We use the publication to reflect on the nature and usefulness of the ecosystem approach (or approaches) in relation to MSP. In doing this, we are greatly aided by a number of planners working with MSP who were interviewed at the Maritime Spatial Planning Forum: Global Meets Regional, which took place on 19-21 November 2019 in Riga. With their help, we address issues such as what do we actually mean by ecosystem approach?; does it have practical relevance for MSP?; and what is the place of social knowledge in applying an ecosystem approach?

    The publication discussed in this episode is:

    D. Langlet, and A. Westholm, Synthesis Report on the Ecosystem Approach to Maritime Spatial Planning (Pan Baltic Scope 2019)

    If you want to comment on the content or otherwise communicate with us, please do so by sending an email to: aron.westholm@law.gu.se.

    We hope that you will enjoy listening!

    • 41 min
    Episode 8 - Blue Growth; How To Get It, And How To Know If It Is Worth Having

    Episode 8 - Blue Growth; How To Get It, And How To Know If It Is Worth Having

    The theme of this episode of the Ocean Governance Podcast is blue growth. We discuss two articles that approach this topical concept with different intentions. One aims to aid the achievement of blue growth, understood as ‘an ambitious framework for ocean management’ by proposing a pragmatic, goal-oriented approach to ocean management and science. The article elaborates five rules of thumb to build such an approach.

    The second article instead deals with assessment of blue growth strategies. Having noted that the focus of reports and initiatives on blue growth tend to be predominantly on economic growth, the authors elaborate a methodology for assessing if blue growth is achieved, and if so to what extent it covers the range of objectives encompassed by SDG 14 on conservation and sustainable use the oceans, seas and marine resources.

    Both articles give rise to questions of how blue growth can be understood and what, if anything, it adds to pre-existing management concepts like sustainable development, and how to deal with the complexities of natural as well as social systems. Data also takes centre stage in the discussion. Both the potential of getting more out of already available data, and the need for being cautious about what specific data can actually tell us, irrespective of how we aggregate it.

    The two articles discussed in this episode are:

    M. G. Burgess, M. Clemence, G. R. McDermott, C. Costello, S. D. Gaines, Five rules for pragmatic blue growth, 87 Marine Policy (2018) 331–339, dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.12.005

    W. Rickels, C. Weiganda, P. Grasse, J. Schmidt, R. Voss, Does the European Union achieve comprehensive blue growth? Progress of EU coastal states in the Baltic and North Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean against sustainable development goal 14, 106 Marine Policy (2019), doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103515.

    Other articles mentioned:
    G.G. Singh, A.M. Cisneros-Montemayor, W. Swartz, W. Cheung, J.A. Guy, T.-A. Kenny, et al., A rapid assessment of co-benefits and trade-offs among Sustainable Development Goals, 93 Marine Policy (2018) 223–231.

    W. Rickels, J. Dovern, J. Hoffmann, M.F. Quaas, J.O. Schmidt, M. Visbeck, Indicators for monitoring sustainable development goals: an application to oceanic development in the European Union, 4 (5) Earth's Future (2016) 252–267.

    If you want to comment on the content or otherwise communicate with us, please do so by sending an email to: aron.westholm@law.gu.se.

    We hope that you will enjoy listening!

    • 48 min
    Episode 7 - Well Informed, Adaptive And Legitimate Governance – A Pie In The Sky?

    Episode 7 - Well Informed, Adaptive And Legitimate Governance – A Pie In The Sky?

    In the seventh episode of the Ocean Governance Podcast, we are joined by Brita Bohman, post doc researcher in ocean governance law at Gothenburg University and lecturer in environmental law at Stockholm university. In her research, Brita has focused on issues of adaptivity and legitimacy in relation to marine governance. That is fitting since preconditions for adaptive and legitimate governance can be said to be the overall theme of this episode. One of the two articles discussed identifies, based on the relevant literature, impediments to and models for facilitating knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers as a precondition for adaptive governance. The second article, which draws on interdisciplinary assessments of the resilience of six North American water basins, formulates guidelines for evaluating ways in which law can be used, adapted, and reformed to facilitate adaptive governance in ways that also enhances the legitimacy of governmental action. While it is evident that creating the right conditions for knowledge-based governance where law provides both legitimacy and facilitate adaptivity is challenging, the texts discussed offer suggestions, at different levels of specificity, for how that can be facilitated.


    The articles discussed in this episode are:

    B. A Cosens, R. K. Craig, S. Hirsch, C. A. (T.) Arnold, M. H. Benson, D. A. DeCaro, A. S. Garmestani, H. Gosnell, J. Ruhl, and E. Schlager, The role of law in adaptive governance, Ecology and Society 22(1):30

    C. Cvitanovic, A.J. Hobday, L. van Kerkhoff, S.K. Wilson, K. Dobbs, N.A. Marshall, Improving knowledge exchange among scientists and decisionmakers to facilitate the adaptive governance of marine resources: A review of knowledge and research needs, Ocean & Coastal Management 112 (2015) 25-35

    It should also be mentioned that Brita Bohman is the author of ‘Transboundary Law for Social-Ecological Resilience?: A Study on Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea Area’ (Department of Law, Stockholm University , 2017)

    If you want to comment on the content or otherwise communicate with us, please do so by sending an email to: aron.westholm@law.gu.se.

    We hope that you will enjoy listening!

    • 46 min
    Episode 6 - The International Law Of The Sea - Who Cares?

    Episode 6 - The International Law Of The Sea - Who Cares?

    In the sixth episode of the Ocean Governance Podcast, we discuss two recent articles that in different ways throw a light on how states approach international law relating to the seas. One of them take a close look at some contentions terminology that plays a central role in the ongoing negations of a binding agreement on biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Taking a classical international law approach to the negotiations, the article makes clear how what is essentially a struggle between groups of states with different interests or priorities, in this context takes the form of a seemingly semantic debate where the choice of individual words become of paramount importance. The other text deals more explicitly with states’ attitudes to international law and specifically the extent to which ‘great powers’, defined as the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, accept and respect the outcome of compulsory dispute settlement under the Law of the sea convention. Although such respect and compliance are far from universal, even ‘great powers’ come out as being very concerned with both the wording and interpretation of international agreements relating to the law of the sea.
    The two articles discussed in this episode are:

    H. D. Phan, International Courts and State Compliance: An Investigation of the Law of the Sea Cases, 50:1 Ocean Development & International Law (2019) 70-90. doi.org/10.1080/00908320.2018.1548420

    A. G. Oude Elferink, Coastal States and MPAs in ABNJ: Ensuring Consistency with the LOSC, 33 The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law (2018) 437-466.

    If you want to comment on the content or otherwise communicate with us, please do so by sending an email to: aron.westholm@law.gu.se.
    We hope that you will enjoy listening!

    • 51 min
    Episode 5 - Connecting Seas: Transboundary Practices and Challenges in MSP

    Episode 5 - Connecting Seas: Transboundary Practices and Challenges in MSP

    This special issue episode of the Ocean Governance Podcast combines discussions of a research article with reflections and interviews from the Connecting Seas MSP Conference held in February 2019 in Hamburg.

    In this episode we discuss practical challenges for transboundary marine spatial planning, with a particular focus on the Baltic and North Seas. What institutional conditions are needed for good regional cooperation on MSP? How can cooperation be fruitful despite significant differences in legislation, planning culture, the current phase of the MSP process, and possibly also focus of and expectations on MSP? The episode also raises issues related to the nature of MSP as both practical problem-solving and an expression of political priorities reflecting fundamental conceptions of sustainability.

    The article discussed in this episode is:

    H. Janßen, R. Varjopuro, A. Luttmann, A Morf, and H. Nieminen, Imbalances in interaction for transboundary marine spatial planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region, 161 Ocean and Coastal Management (2018) 201–210.

    The episode also includes parts of interviews made during the Connecting Seas Conference.

    If you want to comment on the content or otherwise communicate with us, please do so by sending an email to: aron.westholm@law.gu.se.

    We hope that you will enjoy listening!

    • 45 min

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