250 episodes

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Medizin - Open Access LMU - Teil 13/22 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

    • Education

Die Universitätsbibliothek (UB) verfügt über ein umfangreiches Archiv an elektronischen Medien, das von Volltextsammlungen über Zeitungsarchive, Wörterbücher und Enzyklopädien bis hin zu ausführlichen Bibliographien und mehr als 1000 Datenbanken reicht. Auf iTunes U stellt die UB unter anderem eine Auswahl an elektronischen Publikationen der Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler an der LMU bereit. (Dies ist der 13. von 22 Teilen der Sammlung 'Medizin - Open Access LMU'.)

    Effects of spiritual care training for palliative care professionals

    Effects of spiritual care training for palliative care professionals

    Little is known about the effects of spiritual care training for professionals in palliative medicine. We therefore investigated prospectively the effects of such training over a six-month period. All 63 participants of the three and a half-day training were asked to fill out three questionnaires: before and after the training, as well as six months later. The questionnaires included demographic data, numeric rating scales about general attitudes towards the work in palliative care, the Self-Transcendence Scale (STS), the spiritual subscale of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT-Sp) and the Idler Index of Religiosity (IIR). Forty-eight participants (76) completed all three questionnaires (91 women, median age 49 years; 51 nurses, 16 hospice volunteers, 14 physicians).Significant and sustained improvements were found in self-perceived compassion for the dying (after the training: P =0.002; 6 months later: P=0.025), compassion for oneself (P 0.001; P =0.013), attitude towards one's family (P =0.001; P =0.031), satisfaction with work (P 0.001; P =0.039), reduction in work-related stress (P 0.001; P =0.033), and attitude towards colleagues (P =0.039; P =0.040), as well as in the FACIT-Sp (P 0.001; P =0.040). Our results suggest that the spiritual care training had a positive influence on the spiritual well-being and the attitudes of the participating palliative care professionals which was preserved over a six-month period.

    Zinc Gluconate in the Treatment of Dysgeusia—a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Zinc Gluconate in the Treatment of Dysgeusia—a Randomized Clinical Trial

    In the treatment of dysgeusia, the use of zinc has been frequently tried, with equivocal results. The aim of the present randomized clinical trial, which involved a sufficiently large sample, was therefore to determine the efficacy of zinc treatment. Fifty patients with idiopathic dysgeusia were carefully selected. Zinc gluconate (140 mg/day; n = 26) or placebo (lactose; n = 24) was randomly assigned to the patients. The patients on zinc improved in terms of gustatory function (p 0.001) and rated the dysgeusia as being less severe (p 0.05). Similarly, signs of depression in the zinc group were less severe (Beck Depression Inventory, p 0.05; mood scale, p 0.05). With the exception of the salivary calcium level, which was higher in the zinc patients (p 0.05), no other significant group differences were found. In conclusion, zinc appears to improve general gustatory function and, consequently, general mood scores in dysgeusia patients.

    Effectiveness of 4 Pulpotomy Techniques—Randomized Controlled Trial

    Effectiveness of 4 Pulpotomy Techniques—Randomized Controlled Trial

    Pulpotomy is the accepted therapy for the management of cariously exposed pulps in symptom-free primary molars; however, evidence is lacking about the most appropriate technique. The aim of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser, calcium hydroxide, and ferric sulfate techniques with that of dilute formocresol in retaining such molars symptom-free. Two hundred primary molars in 107 healthy children were included and randomly allocated to one of the techniques. The treated teeth were blindly re-evaluated after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Descriptive data analysis and logistic regression analysis, accounting for each patient's effect by a generalized estimating equation (GEE), were used. After 24 months, the following total and clinical success rates were determined (%): formocresol 85 (96), laser 78 (93), calcium hydroxide 53 (87), and ferric sulfate 86 (100). Only calcium hydroxide performed significantly worse than formocresol (p = 0.001, odds ratio = 5.6, 95% confidence interval 2.0-15.5). In conclusion, calcium hydroxide is less appropriate for pulpotomies than is formocresol.

    Biomarkers in acute coronary syndromes and their role in diabetic patients

    Biomarkers in acute coronary syndromes and their role in diabetic patients

    Diabetic patients with acute coronary syndromes
    are at high risk for cardiovascular complications
    but risk stratification in these patients remains
    challenging. Regularly, diabetic patients have a less typical
    clinical presentation, which could lead to delayed
    diagnosis and subsequent delayed initiation of treatment.
    Since diabetic patients derive particular benefit
    from aggressive anti-platelet therapy, early diagnostic
    and therapeutic risk stratification of these patients is of
    critical importance to improve their adverse outcome.
    Although the electrocardiogram remains a pivotal
    diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients suspected of
    having an acute coronary syndrome, only significant STsegment
    changes provide reasonable prognostic information.
    Therefore, repeated assessment of circulating
    protein biomarkers represents a valuable diagnostic tool
    for improving efficacy and safety of decision-making in
    these patients. The combined use of biomarkers reflecting
    distinct pathophysiological aspects, such as myocardial
    necrosis, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress
    and neurohumoral activation, may significantly improve
    triage of patients with chest pain. These tools may identify
    those patients that are at particularly high risk for
    short-term and/or long-term cardiovascular events.
    Eventually, tailored medical and interventional treatment
    of diabetic patients should help to prevent these cardiac
    events in a cost-effective manner.

    The striatal dopamine transporter in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenic patients: evaluation by the new SPECT-ligand[99mTc]TRODAT-1

    The striatal dopamine transporter in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenic patients: evaluation by the new SPECT-ligand[99mTc]TRODAT-1

    Following the current hypothesis that acute schizophrenic psychotic illness is associated with a triatal ‘hyperdopaminergic state’, presynaptic integrity and dopamine transporter (DAT) density in first-episode, neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients was measured by single-photonemission- tomography (SPECT) and compared with that in healthy control subjects. A new SPECT-ligand for assessment of the striatal DAT, the Technetium-99m-labelled tropane TRODAT-1 ([99mTc]TRODAT-1), was used. Ten inpatients suffering from a first acute schizophrenic episode and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects underwent SPECT with [99mTc]TRODAT-1. On the day of SPECT, psychopathological ratings were performed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Schedule for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Patients had not previously received any neuroleptic or antidepressant medication. Mean specific TRODAT-1 binding in the striatum did not differ significantly between the patient and the age- and sex-matched control group (1.25 vs. 1.28). Variance was significantly higher in the patient group. The data obtained with the new ligand in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenic patients are in line with the PET results from the group of Laakso et al. in a comparable patient sample. [99mTc]TRODAT-1 seems to be a valuable new SPECTligand in the evaluation of the presynaptic site of the striatal dopaminergic synapse in schizophrenia.

    A Toll for lupus

    A Toll for lupus

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 recognizes CpG motifs in microbial DNA. TLR9 signalling stimulates innate antimicrobial immunity and modulates adaptive immune responses including autoimmunity against chromatin, e.g., in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This review summarizes the available data for a role of TLR9 signalling in lupus and discusses the following questions that arise from these observations: 1) Is CpG-DNA/TLR9 interaction involved in infection-induced disease activity of lupus? 2) What are the risks of CpG motifs in vaccine adjuvants for lupus patients? 3) Is TLR9 signalling involved in the pathogenesis of lupus by recognizing self DNA?

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