465 episodes

Welcome to the Backend Engineering Show podcast with your host Hussein Nasser. If you like software engineering you’ve come to the right place. I discuss all sorts of software engineering technologies and news with specific focus on the backend. All opinions are my own.

Most of my content in the podcast is an audio version of videos I post on my youtube channel here http://www.youtube.com/c/HusseinNasser-software-engineering

Support my work on PayPal
https://bit.ly/33ENps4

🧑‍🏫 Courses I Teach
https://husseinnasser.com/courses
Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hnasr/support

The Backend Engineering Show with Hussein Nasser Hussein Nasser

    • Technology

Welcome to the Backend Engineering Show podcast with your host Hussein Nasser. If you like software engineering you’ve come to the right place. I discuss all sorts of software engineering technologies and news with specific focus on the backend. All opinions are my own.

Most of my content in the podcast is an audio version of videos I post on my youtube channel here http://www.youtube.com/c/HusseinNasser-software-engineering

Support my work on PayPal
https://bit.ly/33ENps4

🧑‍🏫 Courses I Teach
https://husseinnasser.com/courses
Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/hnasr/support

    Consistent Hashing | The Backend Engineering Show

    Consistent Hashing | The Backend Engineering Show

    In this episode of the backend engineering show I discuss consistent hashing a very important algorithm in distributed computing specially in database systems such as Apache Cassandra and DynamoDB.

    0:00 Intro

    2:00 Problem of Distributed Systems

    5:00 When to Distribute

    7:00 Simple Hashing

    9:30 Where Simple Hashing Breaks

    11:40 Consistent Hashing

    18:00 Adding a Server

    21:15 Removing a Server

    22:30 Limitations


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    • 24 min
    Replacing TCP for the Datacenter - Discussing the Homa paper

    Replacing TCP for the Datacenter - Discussing the Homa paper

    In this episode of the backend engineering show I go through and discuss the Homa Protocol paper which attempts to replace TCP as a protocol in the data centers. I learned a lot from this paper, I have my criticisms of certain aspects, timestamps for topics discussed below.

    It appears there is a path to replace TCP in the datacenter and professor John tries to explain this path.



    Referenced materials mentioned in the episode

    Overview paper

    https://web.stanford.edu/~ouster/cgi-bin/papers/replaceTcp.pdf

    Homa 2018 paper (Details)

    https://people.csail.mit.edu/alizadeh/papers/homa-sigcomm18.pdf

    NIC Offloading in Linux

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TCP_offload_engine#Support_in_Linux

    Curl disabling Nigel Algo

    https://github.com/curl/curl/commit/4732ca5724072f132876f520c8f02c7c5b654d9

    0:00 Intro

    3:00 The nature of networking data center

    5:30 TCP Segments

    7:30 There is no “Request” in TCP

    12:00 What so unique about Data centers?

    14:00 Message Throughput vs Data throughput

    18:25 Congestion Control

    22:38 Homa’s Congestion Control

    25:00 Server Core Load Balancing

    28:30 NIC offloading

    30:00 Everything Wrong about TCP

    37:00 Why not QUIC?

    40:00 Limitation of Streaming

    44:10 Load Balancing Stream Reading

    47:15 Can we treat Segments as Messages?

    51:00 Dispatching Messages is Easier

    53:00 Connection Orientation

    1:00:00 Sender Driven Congestion Control

    1:03:00 In Order Packet Delivery

    1:07:00 DCTCP

    1:08:30 Homa is Message Based

    1:11:00 Home is Connection Less

    1:12:00 Receiver Driven Congestion Control

    1:15:19 Out of Order Packets

    1:16:20 Homa API is not Compatible with TCP

    1:17:40 Will Homa come to HTTP?

    1:18:45 Conclusion


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    • 1 hr 23 min
    ByteDance makes Linux kernel reboots faster

    ByteDance makes Linux kernel reboots faster

    ByteDance, the company behind TikTok is proposing few patches to the linux kernel to make kernel reboots via kexec go from 500ms down to 15 ms saving huge time in updating kernel on thousands of machines. Let us discuss this

    0:00 Intro

    1:30 Linux Kernel Reboot Options

    2:30 how kexec works

    4:00 The optimization

    5:00 Going through the patch

    6:00 Updating Servers at TikTok scale

    9:00 Summary

    https://www.phoronix.com/news/Bytedance-Faster-Kexec-Reboot

    https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20220725083904.56552-1-huangjie.albert@bytedance.com/


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    • 11 min
    This dangerous OpenSSL vulnerability can easily be triggered | CVE-2022-2274 Explained

    This dangerous OpenSSL vulnerability can easily be triggered | CVE-2022-2274 Explained

    We discuss the CVE-2022-2274 OpenSSL Vulnerability.

    The OpenSSL 3.0.4 release introduced a serious bug in the RSA

    implementation for X86_64 CPUs supporting the AVX512IFMA instructions.

    This issue makes the RSA implementation with 2048 bit private keys

    incorrect on such machines and memory corruption will happen during

    the computation. As a consequence of the memory corruption an attacker

    may be able to trigger a remote code execution on the machine performing

    the computation.

    0:00 Intro

    1:00 CVE-2022-2274

    3:00 AVX512IFMA CISC

    5:00 How the bug works

    7:10 How can it be triggered

    Resources

    https://www.openssl.org/news/secadv/20220705.txt

    https://github.com/openssl/openssl/issues/18625

    https://guidovranken.com/2022/06/27/notes-on-openssl-remote-memory-corruption/

    https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/335

    https://github.com/openssl/openssl/commit/4d8a88c134df634ba610ff8db1eb8478ac5fd345

    https://linux.die.net/man/3/bn_internal

    https://www.microfocus.com/documentation/enterprise-developer/ed60/ES-WIN/GUID-E3960B1E-C42E-4748-A5EB-6E12507C9CD7.html

    https://www.microcontrollertips.com/risc-vs-cisc-architectures-one-better/

    Fundamentals of Networking for Effective Backends udemy course (link redirects to udemy with coupon)

    https://network.husseinnasser.com


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    • 9 min
    NULLs are weird, PG15 makes them less weird

    NULLs are weird, PG15 makes them less weird

    Postgres 15 introduces a new syntax to treat nulls as not distinct. This will allow developers to create a unique constraint on nullable fields and have inserts with nulls fail instead of having it allowed based on today's standard.

    Fundamentals of Networking for Effective Backends udemy course (link redirects to udemy with coupon)

    https://network.husseinnasser.com

    Fundamentals of Database Engineering udemy course (link redirects to udemy with coupon)

    https://database.husseinnasser.com



    https://blog.rustprooflabs.com/2022/07/postgres-15-unique-improvement-with-null

    https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/84e5ee1b-387e-9a54-c326-9082674bde78%40enterprisedb.com




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    • 6 min
    This decades old function in Linux is now 4 times faster

    This decades old function in Linux is now 4 times faster

    memchr() is a function that searches in a memory block for a character, this has been recently improved in the latest linux patch and we can learn something from this improvement I think, lets discuss.

    https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=Linux-Kernel-Faster-memchr

    Fundamentals of Networking for Effective Backends udemy course (link redirects to udemy with coupon)

    https://network.husseinnasser.com


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    • 7 min

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