Fundamentals of Physics, II  Video Yale University

 科學

This is a continuation of the introductory course on the principles and methods of physics for students who have good preparation in physics and mathematics. This course covers electricity, magnetism, optics and quantum mechanics.

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01 – Electrostatics
The second half of the course begins with a discussion of electricity. The concept of charge is introduced, and the properties of electrical forces are compared with those of other familiar forces, such as gravitation. Coulomb's Law, along with the principle of superposition, allows for the calculation of electrostatic forces from a given charge distribution.

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02  Electric Fields
The electric field is introduced as the mediator of electrostatic interactions: objects generate the field which permeates all of space, and charged objects in the field experience a force with magnitude proportional to their charge. Several instructive examples are given, including the field of an electric dipole and the notion of the electric dipole and dipole moment. The notion of field lines is introduced.

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03  Gauss's Law I
The electric field is discussed in greater detail and field due an infinite line charge is computed. The concepts of charge density and electric flux are introduced and Gauss's Law, which relates the two, is derived. It is applied to the study of the electric field generated by a spherical charge distribution.

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04  Gauss's Law and Application to Conductors and Insulators
Lecture begins with a recap of Gauss's Law, its derivation, its limitation and its applications in deriving the electric field of several symmetric geometries—like the infinitely long wire. The electrical properties of conductors and insulators are discussed. Multiple integrals are briefly reviewed.

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05  The Electric Potential and Conservation of Energy
The law of conservation of energy is reviewed using examples drawn from Newtonian mechanics. The workenergy theorem is derived from first principles and used to initiate a discussion of the vector calculus underlying the law of conservation of energy.

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06  Capacitors
The electric potential is defined for the electric field. It is introduced as an integral of the electric field making the field the derivative of the potential. After discussing the ideas of electric potential and field as presented in the previous lecture, the concept of capacitance is introduced as a means of storing charge and energy.