18 min

Episode 19: Master These 5 Comma Rules and Raise Your ACT Score Chad Cargill's ACT Test Prep

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There are five key comma rules you must know to score well in ACT English.


1. Use a comma to separate main clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction. The common coordinating conjunctions are and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet. A main clause is one that has both a subject (s) and a verb (v).


EX: We went to the store, and we spent our money.
S/V, and S/V.


-Some memorize the conjunctions with the word FAN BOYS


2. Set off words, phrases, and clauses that are not needed (nonessential). Use commas around nonessential, transitional, or contrasting information. Non-restrictive elements function much like appositives.


3 Examples Below:



Intense preparation, then, is known to produce higher
test scores. (transitional)
Robert Frost, a Pulitzer Prize winner, is known for his
poem “Birches.” (nonessential)
Robert Kurson, not Stephen King, is my favorite
author. (contrasting)


3. Use a comma after an introductory phrase, clause, and adverb. Short introductory prepositional phrases do not require commas unless needed for clarity.
3 Examples Below:



To be able to compete on the collegiate level, many
high school athletes practice their sport all year.
If you are counting on a college scholarship, pay
attention to your grades, class rank, community
service, and standardized test scores.
Occasionally, the person actually responsible for the
vandalism will be caught and pay the damage.


4. A series can be defined as three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence that have the same grammatical rank.
EX: I am taking biology, calculus and history.


-The comma before the word _and _is optional.


5. Use commas to separate adjectives in a series that describe the same word.
EX: The old, blue shirt was worn today.
EX: The dark blue shirt was worn today. The second sentence does not have a comma between dark and blue because dark describes blue; whereas, in the first sentence old does not describe blue.


-Can you replace the comma with the word and?
-Can you reverse the words?


Pages 41-49 of Chad Cargill's ACT prep book provides these rules, examples, exercises, and model ACT questions.




I’d love to connect with you and keep you posted on upcoming episodes and resources. For a free downloadable pdf What Scholarship Committees Look for and How to Win Them, go to scholarships.chadcargill.com, and get your guide now.


For a free downloadable pdf of Key Things You Must Know on Test Day, go to [testday.chadcargill.com](testday.chadcargill.com), and get your guide now.


If you enjoyed the podcast, please leave a review on your podcast app. Leave a shout out for your high school, and I may read it on a future podcast.


If you have questions, leave a comment here or on the Chad Cargill Workshops Facebook page.


To view the workshop calendar, go to calendar.chadcargill.com. You can also order the prep book Chad Cargill's ACT and sign up for speed reading at chadcargill.com. If you are interested in hosting a workshop at your high school, call our office at (405) 454-3233 or email penny@chadcargill.com.


chadcargill.com
Twitter: @ChadCargill


Thanks for listening to the podcast!

There are five key comma rules you must know to score well in ACT English.


1. Use a comma to separate main clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction. The common coordinating conjunctions are and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet. A main clause is one that has both a subject (s) and a verb (v).


EX: We went to the store, and we spent our money.
S/V, and S/V.


-Some memorize the conjunctions with the word FAN BOYS


2. Set off words, phrases, and clauses that are not needed (nonessential). Use commas around nonessential, transitional, or contrasting information. Non-restrictive elements function much like appositives.


3 Examples Below:



Intense preparation, then, is known to produce higher
test scores. (transitional)
Robert Frost, a Pulitzer Prize winner, is known for his
poem “Birches.” (nonessential)
Robert Kurson, not Stephen King, is my favorite
author. (contrasting)


3. Use a comma after an introductory phrase, clause, and adverb. Short introductory prepositional phrases do not require commas unless needed for clarity.
3 Examples Below:



To be able to compete on the collegiate level, many
high school athletes practice their sport all year.
If you are counting on a college scholarship, pay
attention to your grades, class rank, community
service, and standardized test scores.
Occasionally, the person actually responsible for the
vandalism will be caught and pay the damage.


4. A series can be defined as three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence that have the same grammatical rank.
EX: I am taking biology, calculus and history.


-The comma before the word _and _is optional.


5. Use commas to separate adjectives in a series that describe the same word.
EX: The old, blue shirt was worn today.
EX: The dark blue shirt was worn today. The second sentence does not have a comma between dark and blue because dark describes blue; whereas, in the first sentence old does not describe blue.


-Can you replace the comma with the word and?
-Can you reverse the words?


Pages 41-49 of Chad Cargill's ACT prep book provides these rules, examples, exercises, and model ACT questions.




I’d love to connect with you and keep you posted on upcoming episodes and resources. For a free downloadable pdf What Scholarship Committees Look for and How to Win Them, go to scholarships.chadcargill.com, and get your guide now.


For a free downloadable pdf of Key Things You Must Know on Test Day, go to [testday.chadcargill.com](testday.chadcargill.com), and get your guide now.


If you enjoyed the podcast, please leave a review on your podcast app. Leave a shout out for your high school, and I may read it on a future podcast.


If you have questions, leave a comment here or on the Chad Cargill Workshops Facebook page.


To view the workshop calendar, go to calendar.chadcargill.com. You can also order the prep book Chad Cargill's ACT and sign up for speed reading at chadcargill.com. If you are interested in hosting a workshop at your high school, call our office at (405) 454-3233 or email penny@chadcargill.com.


chadcargill.com
Twitter: @ChadCargill


Thanks for listening to the podcast!

18 min

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