11 episodes

This podcast presents recordings of some recent lectures given by Dr. Dennis Hancock, Asst. Professor and Extension Forage Agronomist at the University of Georgia. These lectures cover current topics and management issues as presented at local County Extension meetings or other speaking engagements.

Georgia Forages Dennis W. Hancock, PhD., Extension Forage Agronomist

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This podcast presents recordings of some recent lectures given by Dr. Dennis Hancock, Asst. Professor and Extension Forage Agronomist at the University of Georgia. These lectures cover current topics and management issues as presented at local County Extension meetings or other speaking engagements.

    Bermudagrass Stem Maggot

    Bermudagrass Stem Maggot

    96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Don W. Clark Jr. - Grady County ANR Agent There is a relatively new pest that has had a major impact on Bermudagrass hay production in South Georgia and North Florida.  The Bermuda grass stem maggot, native to Southeast Asia was found in Tift, Pierce, and Jeff Davis counties in 2010.  I found it in Grady County in 2011, it was also found in many South Georgia and North Florida Counties in 2011 and 2012 as well.             If your Bermuda grass hay field looks like it has been damaged by frost in the middle of the growing season, you are probably experiencing damage from this insect.             The larval (maggot) stage of the BSM is what is causing the damage.  This maggot is inside the stem when the damage is done.  The adult fly lays its eggs on the Bermuda grass pseudostme (folded leaf blades).  Upon hatching, the larva works its way toward a node, where the leaf blade emerges from the stem.  As the larva develops, it feeds on the node.  This feeding results in the browning of the last one to three leaf blades.             In 2011 and 2012 I consulted with Dr. Dennis Hancock and Dr. Will Hudson for the purpose of setting up a test in an effort to find a control strategy.  Some observations we made were that BSM was much more common on small stem varieties like Alicia than large stem varieties like Tifton 85 and Coastcross.  Also we needed to control the adult fly because the maggot would be difficult to control protected by the stem.  I set up several tests in 2011 and 2012 in an effort to find an acceptable control strategy.  We used low rates of several pyrethroid’s and three different spray schedules.      My three growers used different spray schedules as follows:A.   Treated behind the baler (3 days after cutting) and again 7 days later.B.    Treated 7 days after cutting and again 7 days later.C.    Treated 5 days after cutting and again 10 days later.All three of my hay producer’s experienced similar control. v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Dr. Hancock, Dr. Hudson, and two graduate students are also continuing to work on control strategies for this pest.  Hopefully we will have more information on control of this pest very soon.   For more information check out this factsheet:  Biology and Management of Bermudagrass Stem Maggot.

    Forage Testing

    Forage Testing

    Clay Talton - Elbert County ANR Agent             In the county extension office we are continuously asked questions about testing forage for nutrients.  Most producers are asking me “how much does it cost” and “what’s the benefit.” A forage test is a vital part to any livestock operation.  Forage for livestock plays a vital role in daily nutrition and without an understanding of the nutrients being provided it is impossible to know if an operation is feeding their animals to meet their daily nutritional needs.  Daily intake of animals changes with age and nutritional needs change with age and stage of production.  With that being said, a forage test is critical to ensuring a lot of hay is fed correctly with or without supplementation based on the report. So how do I take a forage sample? Well the first step is easy…call your County Extension Agent! Your County Agent can provide you with information on proper testing methods for the forage you want to test and let you know what it cost.  Also, they can help you determine what test you need depending on nutrients you are concerned with.  In order to have an accurate forage test it is imperative to get a representative sample.  The method of sampling can vary with types of forage.  Most commonly, we are sampling baled hay from round or square bales.  When sampling hay, use a core sampler.  The most common types of core samplers are the Penn State Forage probe that attaches to the end of a drill or hand brace and the Colorado Hay Probe.  Take 10 to 20 core samples from each hay lot then composite and mix for analysis. Small rectangular bales should be sampled by coring from the end. Large hay bales should be sampled from the front or back (not the sides) in order to get a cross section of the rolled hay. If sampling baleage, be sure to tape over the hole from where core was taken.  Drop your sample by your local extension office and be sure to give them all of the information regarding the specie of livestock you are feeding. So what’s next? Well, you should receive your report from your local extension office detailing the results of the hay you tested.  If you have questions, don’t hesitate to ask your County Agent about how to feed the hay and to get help in determining if the hay will meet the current nutritional needs of your animals.  Also, they can help you to determine what, if any, supplementation is needed.  Interpreting a forage report can be somewhat overwhelming for a first time forage tester.  Most producers are concerned with relative forage quality (RFQ), crude protein (CP), total digestible nutrients (TDN), Dry Matter (DM) and nitrates. RFQ is an index for ranking forages based on a comprehensive analysis. It is calculated from CP, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), fat, ash and NDF digestibility. RFQ is based on a scoring system where the higher the RFQ, the better the quality. This value is a single, easy to interpret number that improves producer understanding of forage’s quality and helps in establishing a fair market value for the product. See the following extension publication, Using Relative Forage Quality to Categorize Hay, to learn more about RFQ.  Crude protein is the total protein in the sample including true protein and non-protein nitrogen. Protein is required on a daily basis for maintenance, lactation, growth and reproduction. Total digestible nutrients is the sum of the digestible fiber, protein, lipid, and carbohydrate components of a feedstuff or diet. TDN is directly related to digestible energy and is often calculated based on ADF. Nitrates can become a problem when fed in high amounts. Nitrate accumulator plants include sorghum, sorghum sudangrass, sudangrass, weeds and small grain forages. Table 1 shows the values that are represented on a forage test and when to use cau

    Preparing to Sprig Bermudagrass

    Preparing to Sprig Bermudagrass

    v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";}           The extended periods of hot, dry weather that most Georgians have experienced over the past few summers has taken a toll on many of the permanent forage grasses.  This is especially true of cool season grasses like fescue and orchardgrass in North Georgia.  Many of these producers with declining forage stands are considering establishing bermudagrass.           If you are considering establishing bermudagrass, you have probably realized there are several options.  Certain varieties can be established by seeding, others by using clippings (tops) and some with vegetative sprigs.  Vegetative sprigs can be used in both prepared soil and no-till situations.  For more information on bermudagrass varieties grown in Georgia, refer to “Selecting a Forage Bermudagrass Variety” 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Proper preparation is the key to good bermudagrass establishment.          This article will focus on getting your field ready to sprig bermudagrass into prepared soil.  Establishing a field in bermudagrass is a long-term commitment so you need to be sure the site is well prepared before putting out the first sprig.          As with most all agronomic crops, a good place to start is determining soil fertility needs by soil testing.  While you are waiting to get the soil test results back, you can destroy any existing vegetation by spraying the area with a non-selective herbicide.  One very troublesome weed that is often found in these sites is common bermudagrass.   Common bermudagrass is virtually impossible to remove once the field is established and should be controlled prior to sprigging.  Keep in mind that common bermudagrass must be green and actively growing for the non-selective herbicide to be effective.           Once your soil test results are back and you have burned-down existing vegetation with a herbicide, you are ready to apply the recommended lime and/or soil nutrients.  Of the three major plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium), adequate potassium levels are critical to maintain a healthy bermudagrass stand.  Any needed nutrients (and lime if required) can be spread at this point so it will be incorporated into the soil root zone during the tillage process.           As mentioned earlier, bermudagrass is a long term crop and proper tillage prior to sprigging can help relieve soil compaction issues and smooth the soil surface.  Deep plowing and disking will get the soil well prepared and allow for any leveling/smoothing of the soil surface that may be needed.  Once the soil is prepared it should be packed to ensure consistent planting depths.   If this tillage is completed a month prior to sprigging, it will give weeds a chance to germinate

    K Deficiency in Bermudagrass Hayfields

    K Deficiency in Bermudagrass Hayfields

    Though this webpage is primarily for videos, this is second of two new segments recorded for the "On The Farm" radio program which airs weekdays between 6:40 and 6:50 am on WVOH 93.5FM in Hazlehurt and WDMG 97.9FM in Douglas and at 6:58 am on WULS 103.7FM in Douglas. This program is coordinated by Eddie McGriff, Coffee County Extension Coordinator. This segment is on the problems we have had with potassium (K) deficiency in bermudagrass hayfields (georgiaforages030.mp3). (Posted 6-10-11)

    The Risks and Potential Dangers of Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning

    The Risks and Potential Dangers of Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning

    Though this webpage is primarily for videos, this is one of two new segments recorded for the "On The Farm" radio program which airs weekdays between 6:40 and 6:50 am on WVOH 93.5FM in Hazlehurt and WDMG 97.9FM in Douglas and at 6:58 am on WULS 103.7FM in Douglas. This program is coordinated by Eddie McGriff, Coffee County Extension Coordinator. This segment is on the risks and potential dangers of nitrate and prussic acid poisoning (georgiaforages029.mp3). This is a timely issue, given the current severity of the drought throughout most of Georgia. (Posted 6-10-11)

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    Forage Producer Forum

    Forage Producer Forum

    The last local producer to present at the March 23, 2010 meeting of the Piedmont Forage and Grassland Council was Tom Trantham of Happy Cow Creamery. Tom is another innovative producer. Tom's dairy institutes a program he calls "The Twelve Aprils" system. This system is one where through continuous plantings he is able to provide very high quality forage year- round. (georgiaforages027.mov)

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