(BENG 100) The course covers basic concepts of biomedical engineering and their connection with the spectrum of human activity. It serves as an introduction to the fundamental science and engineering on which biomedical engineering is based. Case studies of drugs and medical products illustrate the product development-product testing cycle, patent protection, and FDA approval. It is designed for science and non-science majors.
This course was recorded in Spring 2008.
01 - What is Biomedical Engineering?
Professor Saltzman introduces the concepts and applications of biomedical engineering, providing an overview of the course syllabus, reading materials for lecture and labs and grading logistics. Various pictures are shown to highlight the current application of biomedical engineering technologies in daily life (eg. chest x-ray, PET scan, operating room, gene chip, transport). Next, living standards and medical technologies of the past and present are compared to point out the impact of biomedical engineering as well as areas for improvement in the field. Finally, Professor Saltzman draws references from the poem "London Bridge" to illustrate some societal issues in making materials and devices in biomedical engineering.
02 - What is Biomedical Engineering? (cont.)
Class begins with discussion of students' answers to the two questions given as assignment in the previous lecture. Professor Saltzman talks about the basic concept of biomedical engineering and two separate aspects of it: gaining better understanding of human physiology and developing ways to improve human health. He then introduces the term homeostasis, and talks about parameters that are involved in controlling this state. Finally, the structure of the phospholipid is discussed and how it constitutes the cell membrane.
03 - Genetic Engineering
Professor Saltzman introduces the elements of molecular structure of DNA such as backbone, base composition, base pairing, and directionality of nucleic acids. He describes the processes of DNA synthesis, transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational processing required to make a protein such as insulin from its genetic code (DNA). Professor Saltzman describes the genetic code. RNA interference is also discussed as a way to control gene expression, which can be applied as a new way to treat diseases.
04 - Genetic Engineering (cont.)
Professor Saltzman continues his presentation on DNA technology by discussing control of gene expression using two methods of RNA silencing: anti-sense therapy and RNA interference. Molecular cloning techniques to mass-produce proteins using plasmid, restriction enzymes, ligase, and antibiotic selection in bacteria are discussed. Steps and molecules involved in polymerase chain reaction are also described. Professor Saltzman explains how to detect mutations in genomic DNA, such as in sickle cell anemia patients, by gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting. Finally, he gives an example of inducing and controlling insulin expression in large animals by cloning into their genome the insulin gene with the lac promoter.
05 - Cell Culture Engineering
Professor Saltzman reviews the concept of gene therapy, and gives some examples of where this is applied. Methods to help deliver DNA into cells using viruses and cationic lipids are discussed, as a way to overcome some challenges in gene therapy. Next, Professor Saltzman gives a brief introduction into bacterial and mammalian cell physiology. He describes the different tissues in the body, the cell development/differentiation process, the anchorage dependence of mammalian cells that allows them to form an organism, and the extracellular matrix.
06 - Cell Culture Engineering (cont.)
Professor Saltzman describes the processes of fertilization and embryogenesis. Professor Saltzman then talks about the definition and classification of different types of stem cells, where stem cells are found in the body, and the potential for use of stem cells in treating diseases. Some challenges in this type of therapy are also discussed. Finally, Professor Saltzman introduces the exponential equation for cell growth, dX/dt = eμt, and the concept of cell "doubling time."
bad speaker, doesn't really know anything
after about twenty or so minutes of stuttering and "ums" and "ahs" (extremely distracting), a student asked a question about how embryonic stem cells knew how to divide, and the teacher spent like ten minutes answering her with the same exact generalization about how they just divide. He really doesn't know and can't admit it. Instead he wastes times trying to explain whatever fourth grade biology text book would say. I also have to say he is a horrible speaker in general. I was so distracted with his stuttering, that I had to shut it off in twenty minutes.