60 episodes

Interviews with experts about the philosophy of the future.

Philosophical Disquisitions John Danaher

    • Philosophy
    • 4.1, 8 Ratings

Interviews with experts about the philosophy of the future.

    78 - Humans and Robots: Ethics, Agency and Anthropomorphism

    78 - Humans and Robots: Ethics, Agency and Anthropomorphism

        Are robots like humans? Are they agents? Can we have relationships with them? These are just some of the questions I explore with today's guest, Sven Nyholm. Sven is an assistant professor of philosophy at Utrecht University in the Netherlands. His research focuses on ethics, particularly the ethics of technology. He is a friend of the show, having appeared twice before. In this episode, we are talking about his recent, great, book Humans and Robots: Ethics, Agency and Anthropomorphism.  You can download the episode here or listen below. You can also subscribe on Apple Podcasts, Stitcher, Spotify and other podcasting services (the RSS feed is here).  Show Notes:Topics covered in this episode include: Why did Sven play football with a robot? Who won? What is a robot? What is an agent? Why does it matter if robots are agents? Why does Sven worry about a normative mismatch between humans and robots? What should we do about this normative mismatch? Why are people worried about responsibility gaps arising as a result of the widespread deployment of robots? How should we think about human-robot collaborations? Why should human drivers be more like self-driving cars? Can we be friends with a robot? Why does Sven reject my theory of ethical behaviourism? Should we be pessimistic about the future of roboethics? Relevant Links Sven's Homepage Sven on Philpapers Humans and Robots: Ethics, Agency and Anthropomorphism 'Can a robot be a good colleague?' by Sven and Jilles Smids 'Attributing Agency to Automated Systems: Reflections on Human–Robot Collaborations and Responsibility-Loci' by Sven 'Automated Cars Meet Human Drivers: Responsible Human-Robot Coordination and The Ethics of Mixed Traffic' by Sven and Jilles Smids   #mc_embed_signup{background:#fff; clear:left; font:14px Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif; } /* Add your own MailChimp form style overrides in your site stylesheet or in this style block. We recommend moving this block and the preceding CSS link to the HEAD of your HTML file. */ Subscribe to the newsletter

    77 - Should AI be Explainable?

    77 - Should AI be Explainable?

    If an AI system makes a decision, should its reasons for making that decision be explainable to you? In this episode, I chat to Scott Robbins about this issue. Scott is currently completing his PhD in the ethics of artificial intelligence at the Technical University of Delft. He has a B.Sc. in Computer Science from California State University, Chico and an M.Sc. in Ethics of Technology from the University of Twente. He is a founding member of the Foundation for Responsible Robotics and a member of the 4TU Centre for Ethics and Technology. Scott is skeptical of AI as a grand solution to societal problems and argues that AI should be boring. You can download the episode here or listen below. You can also subscribe on Apple Podcasts, Stitcher, Spotify and other podcasting services (the RSS feed is here).  Show NotesTopic covered include: Why do people worry about the opacity of AI?What's the difference between explainability and transparency?What's the moral value or function of explainable AI?Must we distinguish between the ethical value of an explanation and its epistemic value?Why is it so technically difficult to make AI explainable?Will we ever have a technical solution to the explanation problem?Why does Scott think there is Catch 22 involved in insisting on explainable AI?When should we insist on explanations and when are they unnecessary?Should we insist on using boring AI?  Relevant LinksScotts's webpageScott's paper "A Misdirected Principle with a Catch: Explicability for AI"Scott's paper "The Value of Transparency: Bulk Data and Authorisation""The Right to an Explanation Explained" by Margot KaminskiEpisode 36 - Wachter on Algorithms and Explanations  #mc_embed_signup{background:#fff; clear:left; font:14px Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif; } /* Add your own MailChimp form style overrides in your site stylesheet or in this style block. We recommend moving this block and the preceding CSS link to the HEAD of your HTML file. */ Subscribe to the newsletter

    76 - Surveillance, Privacy and COVID-19

    76 - Surveillance, Privacy and COVID-19

    How do we get back to normal after the COVID-19 pandemic? One suggestion is that we use increased amounts of surveillance and tracking to identify and isolate infected and at-risk persons. While this might be a valid public health strategy it does raise some tricky ethical questions. In this episode I talk to Carissa Véliz about these questions. Carissa is a Research Fellow at the Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics at Oxford and the Wellcome Centre for Ethics and Humanities, also at Oxford. She is the editor of the Oxford Handbook of Digital Ethics as well as two forthcoming solo-authored books Privacy is Power (Transworld) and The Ethics of Privacy (Oxford University Press). You can download the episode here or listen below.You can also subscribe to the podcast on Apple, Stitcher and a range of other podcasting services (the RSS feed is here).  Show NotesTopics discussed include The value of privacyDo we balance privacy against other rights/values?The significance of consent in debates about consentDigital contact tracing and digital quarantinesThe ethics of digital contact tracingIs the value of digital contact tracing being oversold?The relationship between testing and contact tracingCOVID 19 as an important moment in the fight for privacyThe data economy in light of COVID 19The ethics of immunity passportsThe importance of focusing on the right things in responding to COVID 19  Relevant LinksCarissa's WebpageCarissa's Twitter feed (a treasure trove of links about privacy and surveillance)Views on Privacy: A Survey by Sian Brooke and Carissa VélizData, Privacy and the Individual by Carissa VélizScience paper on the value of digital contact tracingThe Apple-Google proposal for digital contact tracing''The new normal': China's excessive coronavirus public monitoring could be here to stay' 'In Coronavirus Fight, China Gives Citizens a Color Code, With Red Flags''To curb covid-19, China is using its high-tech surveillance tools''Digital surveillance to fight COVID-19 can only be justified if it respects human rights''Why ‘Mandatory Privacy-Preserving Digital Contact Tracing’ is the Ethical Measure against COVID-19' by Cansu Canca'The COVID-19 Tracking App Won't Work' 'What are 'immunity passports' and could they help us end the coronavirus lockdown?''The case for ending the Covid-19 pandemic with mass testing'  #mc_embed_signup{background:#fff; clear:left; font:14px Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif; } /* Add your own MailChimp form style overrides in your site stylesheet or in this style block. We recommend moving this block and the preceding CSS link to the HEAD of your HTML file. */ Subscribe to the newsletter

    75 - The Vital Ethical Contexts of Coronavirus

    75 - The Vital Ethical Contexts of Coronavirus

    There is a lot of data and reporting out there about the COVID 19 pandemic. How should we make sense of that data? Do the media narratives misrepresent or mislead us as to the true risks associated with the disease? Have governments mishandled the response? Can they be morally blamed for what they have done. These are the questions I discuss with my guest on today's show: David Shaw. David is a Senior Researcher at the Institute for Biomedical Ethics at the University of Basel and an Assistant Professor at the Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University. We discuss some recent writing David has been doing on the Journal of Medical Ethics blog about the coronavirus crisis. You can download the episode here or listen below. You can also subscribe to the podcast on Apple, Stitcher and a range of other podcasting services (the RSS feed is here).  Show NotesTopics discussed include... Why is it important to keep death rates and other data in context?Is media reporting of deaths misleading?Why do the media discuss 'soaring' death rates and 'grim' statistics?Are we ignoring the unintended health consequences of COVID 19?Should we take the economic costs more seriously given the link between poverty/inequality and health outcomes?Did the UK government mishandle the response to the crisis? Are they blameworthy for what they did?Is it fair to criticise governments for their handling of the crisis?Is it okay for governments to experiment on their populations in response to the crisis? Relevant LinksDavid's Profile Page at the University of Basel'The Vital Contexts of Coronavirus' by David'The Slow Dragon and the Dim Sloth: What can the world learn from coronavirus responses in Italy and the UK?' by Marcello Ienca and David Shaw'Don't let the ethics of despair infect the ICU' by David Shaw, Dan Harvey and Dale Gardiner'Deaths in New York City Are More Than Double the Usual Total' in the NYT (getting the context right?!)Preliminary results from German Antibody tests in one town: 14% of the population infectedDo Death Rates Go Down in a Recession?The Sun's Good Friday headline #mc_embed_signup{background:#fff; clear:left; font:14px Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif; } /* Add your own MailChimp form style overrides in your site stylesheet or in this style block. We recommend moving this block and the preceding CSS link to the HEAD of your HTML file. */ Subscribe to the newsletter

    74 - How to Understand COVID 19

    74 - How to Understand COVID 19

    I'm still thinking a lot about the COVID-19 pandemic. In this episode I turn away from some of the 'classical' ethical questions about the disease and talk more about how to understand it and form reasonable beliefs about the public health information that has been issued in response to it. To help me do this I will be talking to Katherine Furman. Katherine is a lecturer in philosophy at the University of Liverpool. Her research interests are at the intersection of Philosophy and Health Policy. She is interested in how laypeople understand issues of science, objectivity in the sciences and social sciences, and public trust in science. Her previous work has focused on the HIV/AIDs pandemic and the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015. We will be talking about the lessons we can draw from this work for how we think about the COVID-19 pandemic. You can download the episode here or listen below. You can also subscribe to the podcast on Apple, Stitcher and a range of other podcasting services (the RSS feed is here). Show NotesTopics discussed include: The history of explaining the causes of diseaseMono-causal theories of diseaseMulti-causal theories of diseaseLessons learned from the HIV/AIDs pandemicThe practical importance of understanding the causes of disease in the current pandemicIs there an ethics of belief?Do we have epistemic duties in relation to COVID-19?Is it reasonable to believe 'rumours' about the disease?Lessons learned from the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreakThe importance of values in the public understanding of science Relevant LinksKatherine's HomepageKatherine @ University of Liverpool"Mono-Causal and Multi-Causal Theories of Disease: How to Think Virally and Socially about the Aetiology of AIDS" by Katherine"Moral Responsibility, Culpable Ignorance, and Suppressed Disagreement" by Katherine"The international response to the Ebola outbreak has excluded Africans and their interests" by KatherineImperial College paper on COVID-19 scenariosOxford Paper on possible exposure levels to novel Coronavirus   #mc_embed_signup{background:#fff; clear:left; font:14px Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif; } /* Add your own MailChimp form style overrides in your site stylesheet or in this style block. We recommend moving this block and the preceding CSS link to the HEAD of your HTML file. */ Subscribe to the newsletter

    73 - The Ethics of Healthcare Prioritisation during COVID 19

    73 - The Ethics of Healthcare Prioritisation during COVID 19

    We have a limited number of ventilators. Who should get access to them? In this episode I talk to Lars Sandman. Lars is a Professor of Healthcare Ethics at Linköping University, Sweden. Lars’s research involves studying ethical aspects of distributing scarce resources within health care and studying and developing methods for ethical analyses of health-care procedures. We discuss the ethics of healthcare prioritisation in the midst of the COVID 19 pandemic, focusing specifically on some principles Lars, along with others, developed for the Swedish government. You download the episode here or listen below. You can also subscribe to the podcast on Apple, Stitcher and a range of other podcasting services (the RSS feed is here). Show NotesThe prioritisation challenges we currently faceEthical principles for prioritisation in healthcareProblems with applying ethical theories in practiceSwedish legal principles on healthcare prioritisationPrinciples for access to ICU during the COVID 19 pandemicDo we prioritise younger people?Chronological age versus biological ageCould we use a lottery principle?Should we prioritise healthcare workers?Impact of COVID 19 prioritisation on other healthcare priorities  Relevant LinksLar's WebpageSwedish Legal PrinciplesBackground to the Swedish LawNew priority principles in Sweden (English Translation by Christian Munthe)"Principles for allocation of scarce medical interventions" by Persad, Werthheimer and Emanuel (good overview of the ethical debate)The grim ethical dilemma of rationing medical care, explained - Vox.com #mc_embed_signup{background:#fff; clear:left; font:14px Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif; } /* Add your own MailChimp form style overrides in your site stylesheet or in this style block. We recommend moving this block and the preceding CSS link to the HEAD of your HTML file. */ Subscribe to the newsletter

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