This is the first episode of the long awaited Season 3 of Discovering Darwin. In this season we will be exploring Charles Darwin's 14th original published book entitled The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. We are reading the 3rd Edition of the book that has been edited by Paul Ekman. Dr. Mark Jackson, Psychology professor at Transylvania University is joining us this season as we tackle this unusual book by Charles Darwin. One of things that makes this book so unusual is that it is considered the first scientific book to utilize photographs. The French neurologist Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne had found a man who seemed to lack the ability to feel pain so Duchenne was able to apply electrical probes to stimulate muscle contractions. By carefully stimulating certain muscle groups, Duchenne was able to get his "Old Man" to hold an expression long enough to be captured in a photograph using the early camera system of the times that required long exposure times. We discussed how Charles began taking notes for this book 33 years earlier when his first child , William Erasmus Darwin, was born. Here is the sweet photograph of a proud father, Charles Darwin, sits with his son William. We discussed the functionality of dressing all young children, regardless of their gender, in dresses. One of the people that Darwin was reacting to as he wrote his Expression and Emotions of Man and Animals was Charles Bell, a talented artist and anatomist. One of Bell's hypothesis was that emotions are a uniquely human trait that were given to us by our creator and he would show muscle sets that were "unique" to humans for expressing emotions. Darwin, opposed that creation view, and worked to adopt his idea of evolution by descent with modification to explain how emotions, like other traits, in humans when compared to other animals "...do not differ in kind, although immensely in degree." [Descent of Man 1871]. James described how beautiful the drawings of Bell were and mentioned the hand on the book illustration as represented below. So what expression do you think this image represents? The opening and closing theme to Discovering Darwin is "May" by Jared C. Balogh.