93 episodes

Your weekly "Snippit" of applied sports science

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    • Health & Fitness
    • 4.0, 5 Ratings

Your weekly "Snippit" of applied sports science

    Snippit 93 ► Exercise & Your Immune System

    Snippit 93 ► Exercise & Your Immune System

    Snippit is made possible by listeners like you.Please help support the podcast:► https://www.patreon.com/snippitscience  
     

     

    Exercise immunology: involved components and varieties in different types of physical exercise

    Samuel Inkabi, Giggil Pushpamithran, Paul Richter, Kwadwo Attakora
    Published 2017
    Journal of Life Sciences


    Physical exercise induces modifications in the immune system influencing either positively or negatively on health depending on its frequency, duration, and intensity. Acute or moderate physical exercise increases appreciably the immune cells, including cytokine levels while decreasing other components like NK cells, leading to a stronger response to pathogens as well as decreasing liability to allergic reactions. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) is elevated as well, augmenting the positive effect. Exhaustive physical exercise, by contrast, modifies the immune system adversely. This review explores the links between physical exercise, immune cells and cytokines, and the immunological effects that have been studied by the performance of different kinds of physical exercise.

     
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    • 15 min
    Snippit 92 ► Isometric Push-up - A valid and reliable upper body strength test

    Snippit 92 ► Isometric Push-up - A valid and reliable upper body strength test

    Snippit is made possible by listeners like you.Please help support the podcast:► https://www.patreon.com/snippitscience  
     
     
     
    J Hum Kinet. 2015 Oct 14;47:189-95. doi: 10.1515/hukin-2015-0074. eCollection 2015 Sep 29.
    Validation and Reliability of a Novel Test of Upper Body Isometric Strength.
    Bellar D, Marcus L, Judge LW.


    School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette LA.
    School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Science, Ball State University, Muncie IN.



    Abstract

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association of a novel test of upper body isometric strength against a 1RM bench press measurement.
    Forty college age adults (n = 20 female, n = 20 male; age 22.8 ± 2.8 years; body height 171.6 ± 10.8 cm; body mass 73.5 ± 16.3 kg; body fat 23.1 ± 5.4%) volunteered for the present investigation. The participants reported to the lab on three occasions. The first visit included anthropometric measurements and familiarization with both the upper body isometric test and bench press exercise. The final visits were conducted in a randomized order, with one being a 1RM assessment on the bench press and the other consisting of three trials of the upper body isometric assessment. For the isometric test, participants were positioned in a "push-up" style position while tethered (stainless steel chain) to a load cell (high frequency) anchored to the ground.
    The peak isometric force was consistent across all three trials (ICC = 0.98) suggesting good reliability. Multiple regression analysis was completed with the predictors: peak isometric force, gender, against the outcome variable 1RM bench press. The analysis resulted in a significant model (r2 = 0.861, p≤0.001) with all predictor variables attaining significance in the model (p

    • 21 min
    Snippit 91 ► Isometric Mid-thigh Pull - The best position

    Snippit 91 ► Isometric Mid-thigh Pull - The best position

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    Effect of Body Position on Force Production During the Isometric Midthigh Pull
    Beckham, George K.
    Sato, Kimitake
    Santana, Hugo A.P.
    Mizuguchi, Satoshi
    Haff, G. Gregory
    Stone, Michael H.
    The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: January 2018 - Volume 32 - Issue 1 - p 48-56
    doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001968
    Abstract


    Beckham, GK, Sato, K, Santana, HAP, Mizuguchi, S, Haff, GG, and Stone, MH. Effect of body position on force production during the isometric midthigh pull. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 48–56, 2018
    Various body positions have been used in the scientific literature when performing the isometric midthigh pull resulting in divergent results.
    We evaluated force production in the isometric midthigh pull in bent (125° knee and 125° hip angles) and upright (125° knee, 145° hip angle) positions in subjects with (>6 months) and without (

    • 27 min
    Snippit 90 ► The Isometric Squat as a measure of strength and explosiveness

    Snippit 90 ► The Isometric Squat as a measure of strength and explosiveness

    Happy Easter everyone.
    Isometric training is very topical at the moment with the current situation that most of us are currently experiencing. Today's episode follows on the first 3 in the series of Isometric training. In particular we look at the isometric squat and how it relates to measures of strength and explosiveness. After this episode we have another 2 isometric papers to round out this series.
    Again, thank you to our podcast sponsor EliteForm, which brings together cutting edge sports science technologies.  Please visit https://eliteform.com and check out their products, StrengthPlanner and PowerTracker.
     doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000751.
    The use of the isometric squat as a measure of strength and explosiveness.
    Bazyler CD1, Beckham GK, Sato K.

     
    J Strength Cond Res. 2015 May;29(5):1386-92.


    Abstract

    The isometric squat has been used to detect changes in kinetic variables as a result of training; however, controversy exists in its application to dynamic multijoint tasks. Thus, the purpose of this study was to further examine the relationship between isometric squat kinetic variables and isoinertial strength measures.
    Subjects (17 men, 1-repetition maximum [1RM]: 148.2 ± 23.4 kg) performed squats 2 d · wk(-1) for 12 weeks and were tested on 1RM squat, 1RM partial squat, and isometric squat at 90° and 120° of knee flexion.
    Test-retest reliability was very good for all isometric measures (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.90); however, rate of force development 250 milliseconds at 90° and 120° seemed to have a higher systematic error (relative technical error of measurement = 8.12%, 9.44%).
    Pearson product-moment correlations indicated strong relationships between isometric peak force at 90° (IPF 90°) and 1RM squat (r = 0.86), and IPF 120° and 1RM partial squat (r = 0.79). Impulse 250 milliseconds (IMP) at 90° and 120° exhibited moderate to strong correlations with 1RM squat (r = 0.70, 0.58) and partial squat (r = 0.73, 0.62), respectively.
    Rate of force development at 90° and 120° exhibited weak to moderate correlations with 1RM squat (r = 0.55, 0.43) and partial squat (r = 0.32, 0.42), respectively.
    These findings demonstrate a degree of joint angle specificity to dynamic tasks for rapid and peak isometric force production.
    In conclusion, an isometric squat performed at 90° and 120° is a reliable testing measure that can provide a strong indication of changes in strength and explosiveness during training.


     
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    • 20 min
    Snippit 89 ► Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in Space

    Snippit 89 ► Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in Space

     


    MINI REVIEW ARTICLE

    Front. Physiol., 13 August 2019 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01031
     


    Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation as a Potential Countermeasure for Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Weakness During Human Spaceflight
    Nicola A. Maffiuletti, David A. Green, Marco Aurelio Vaz and Marlou L. Dirks
    Human Performance Lab, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland
    Space Medicine Team, HRE-OM, European Astronaut Centre, European Space Agency, Cologne, Germany
    KBRwyle, Wyle Laboratories GmbH, Cologne, Germany
    King’s College London, Centre for Human & Applied Physiological Sciences (CHAPS), London, United Kingdom
    Exercise Research Laboratory (LAPEX), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
    Department of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom
    Human spaceflight is associated with a substantial loss of skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) evokes involuntary muscle contractions, which have the potential to preserve or restore skeletal muscle mass and neuromuscular function during and/or post spaceflight. This assumption is largely based on evidence from terrestrial disuse/immobilization studies without the use of large exercise equipment that may not be available in spaceflight beyond the International Space Station. In this mini-review we provide an overview of the rationale and evidence for NMES based on the terrestrial state-of-the-art knowledge, compare this to that used in orbit, and in ground-based analogs in order to provide practical recommendations for implementation of NMES in future space missions. Emphasis will be placed on knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles known to be particularly susceptible to deconditioning in space missions.





     
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    • 12 min
    Snippit 88 ► Isometric Strength Training (part 3) - Eccentric quasi-isometrics, resistance training and implementing it into your training.

    Snippit 88 ► Isometric Strength Training (part 3) - Eccentric quasi-isometrics, resistance training and implementing it into your training.

     
    Hi everyone,
    We hope you are enjoying this short mini-series Isometric Strength Training. Today's article review is the second half of last week's review on Eccentric Quasi-Isometric Training. There are some great practical applications from this podcast. In the next 3 following podcasts, Chris looks at different isometric tests and how that relates to performance. 
    Scientific Basis for Eccentric Quasi-Isometric Resistance Training: A Narrative Review.
    J Strength Cond Res. 2019 Oct;33(10):2846-2859. 
    Oranchuk DJ, Storey AG, Nelson AR, Cronin JB.

    Abstract



    Oranchuk, DJ, Storey, AG, Nelson, AR, and Cronin, JB. The scientific basis for eccentric quasi-isometric resistance training: A narrative review. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2846-2859, 2019- 
     
    Eccentric quasi-isometric (EQI) resistance training involves holding a submaximal, yielding isometric contraction until fatigue causes muscle lengthening and then maximally resisting through a range of motion. Practitioners contend that EQI contractions are a powerful tool for the development of several physical qualities important to health and sports performance.
    In addition, several sports involve regular quasi-isometric contractions for optimal performance. Therefore, the primary objective of this review was to synthesize and critically analyze relevant biological, physiological, and biomechanical research and develop a rationale for the value of EQI training. In addition, this review offers potential practical applications and highlights future areas of research.
    Although there is a paucity of research investigating EQIs, the literature on responses to traditional contraction types is vast. Based on the relevant literature, EQIs may provide a practical means of increasing total volume, metabolite build-up, and hormonal signaling factors while safely enduring large quantities of mechanical tension with low levels of peak torque.
    Conversely, EQI contractions likely hold little neuromuscular specificity to high velocity or power movements. Therefore, EQI training seems to be effective for improving musculotendinous morphological and performance variables with low injury risk. Although speculative due to the limited specific literature, available evidence suggests a case for future experimentation.




     
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    • 22 min

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