34 min

ST608 Lesson 06 Ethics

    • Religion & Spirituality

Commonly people will say, "There is a logical contradiction between our freedom and the predetermination of what we are going to do." Consider the account of Peter and his denial of Christ. The account contains free will, determinism and the realization of guilt. Luke 22:34,60-62 tells us, " Jesus replied, ‘I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow today until you have denied three times that you know me’ . . .But Peter said, ‘Man, I don’t know what you’re talking about!’ At that moment, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed. Then the Lord turned and looked straight at Peter, and Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said to him, ‘Before a rooster crows today, you will deny me three times.’ And he went outside and wept bitterly.” What Peter did was preordained and he was obviously free and responsible. Explore the types of ethical theories. Consider that typologically-pure theories are rare! The Teleological concerns the ends or is a purpose-based ethics. The ends justify the means. For Ethical Egoism, I ought to act in such a way as to maximize my own happiness, pleasure, or well-being and minimize my own pain or suffering. Hedonism is short-term and focuses on maximizing pleasure. Drug use, especially opiates, is a kind of ultimate expression of hedonism. There has never been a thoughtful promoter of Hedonism because the hedonist would be doing drugs instead of writing a book about it. It is often thought of as "Epicurean Delights," or pure and deep pleasures. However, Epicurus was not hedonistic!!! Consider that maximization of pleasure and minimization of pain makes a kind of peaceful life that is preferred. It is ok to forgo pleasure, or even experience pain, for the sake of long-term pleasure. At its best, pleasure is a capacity to sense actual goodness, so its pursuit is actually the pursuit of the truly "good". In Psychological Egoism, human beings always do choose to act in order to maximize their own self-interest. This theory is worth knowing, but it is not an ethical theory. It is impossible to verify or falsify. Evolutionary psychology ultimately leads to a form of this theory. "Creatures act to maximize the long-term survival of their genes."

Commonly people will say, "There is a logical contradiction between our freedom and the predetermination of what we are going to do." Consider the account of Peter and his denial of Christ. The account contains free will, determinism and the realization of guilt. Luke 22:34,60-62 tells us, " Jesus replied, ‘I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow today until you have denied three times that you know me’ . . .But Peter said, ‘Man, I don’t know what you’re talking about!’ At that moment, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed. Then the Lord turned and looked straight at Peter, and Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said to him, ‘Before a rooster crows today, you will deny me three times.’ And he went outside and wept bitterly.” What Peter did was preordained and he was obviously free and responsible. Explore the types of ethical theories. Consider that typologically-pure theories are rare! The Teleological concerns the ends or is a purpose-based ethics. The ends justify the means. For Ethical Egoism, I ought to act in such a way as to maximize my own happiness, pleasure, or well-being and minimize my own pain or suffering. Hedonism is short-term and focuses on maximizing pleasure. Drug use, especially opiates, is a kind of ultimate expression of hedonism. There has never been a thoughtful promoter of Hedonism because the hedonist would be doing drugs instead of writing a book about it. It is often thought of as "Epicurean Delights," or pure and deep pleasures. However, Epicurus was not hedonistic!!! Consider that maximization of pleasure and minimization of pain makes a kind of peaceful life that is preferred. It is ok to forgo pleasure, or even experience pain, for the sake of long-term pleasure. At its best, pleasure is a capacity to sense actual goodness, so its pursuit is actually the pursuit of the truly "good". In Psychological Egoism, human beings always do choose to act in order to maximize their own self-interest. This theory is worth knowing, but it is not an ethical theory. It is impossible to verify or falsify. Evolutionary psychology ultimately leads to a form of this theory. "Creatures act to maximize the long-term survival of their genes."

34 min

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