This podcast describes issues and ideas related to effective reading instruction. It is designed for professional educators, parents, tutors, and paraprofessionals.
VALUES CLARIFICATION ACTIVITIES
Values clarification is a strategy designed to help students identify, examine, and clarify their own values (Johnson, 2006). In the past, there has some have mischaracterized of values clarification activities as trying to tell students that there is no such thing as right or wrong (see the definition of morality in the last chapter). This is not the case. Instead, these types of activities provide the platform for students to define and develop their own set of values and identify behaviors that support their values. This is always more powerful and long lasting than simply telling them what they should value or how they should behave.
To be fully teacher, one must be fully present. Being fully teacher means being fully human. It is about being in relationship. It is about caring. It is about feeling. It is about keeping children from disappearing.
Defining and understanding exactly what reading is, is an important part of teaching reading. This podcast defines reading by describing four essential elements:1. Reading is the practice of using text to create meaning.2. Reading is a constantly developing skill.3. Reading integrates visual and non-visual information.4. Reading is the act of linking one idea to another.
DEVELOPING MORAL REASONING - PART 4: MORAL DILEMMAS
There are three types of activities that can be used to advance students’ moral reasoning: moral dilemmas, values clarification activities, analyzing levels and stages. This podcast addresses moral dilemmas.
CAROL GILLIGAN'S STAGES OF ETHICAL CARE
Carol Gilligan (1998) contended that Kohlberg’s research excluded and devalued women’s ways of moral reasoning. His theories on moral development were put forth by a male, in a male dominant society, using only male subjects and thus, were biased in favor of men. She had a point. Using extensive interviews with girls ages 6 to 18, she postulated that women have differing moral reasoning tendencies than men. According to Gilligan, women tend to think of right and wrong (morality) in terms of caring relationships and connections whereas men tend to think in terms of rules and justice. She argued that these differences were largely a result, not of biological influences, but of social influences and gender conditioning that occurred in a context in which women’s ways of thinking were often undervalued compared to men. As society continues to evolve (hopefully), these differences will continue to diminish.
PART 4 - WE ARE FAILING OUR STRUGGLING READERS: THE STORY OF ROBERT
We are failing our struggling readers because we are force-feeding them all the standardized reading slop, administered in the same way, and in the same sequence as every other human being subjected to the same for-profit, one-size-fits-all, standardized reading instruction program. Struggling readers are not standardized entities. Neither should their reading interventions. Depending on students’ needs, intervention sessions for reading should include some or all of the following seven elements:1. Word work2. Word identification3. Maze and cloze work4. Writing5. Fluency work6. Comprehension7. Reading practice