3 min

Why You Can't Build A Clone Army... (Yet) MinuteEarth

    • Science

Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/2UGB30qCbvs. Because of the way genetic reprogramming works, it’s hard to make one clone based on an adult cell, and it’s almost impossible to make a second-generation one. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. Clone: An organism produced asexually from one ancestor, to which they are genetically identical. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main component of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information. Embryo: An unborn or unhatched offspring early in the process of development. Enzyme: A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Gene: A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring. These are encoded within DNA and help determine traits. Genetic Reprogramming: This refers to erasing and remodeling epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation during mammalian development. Zygote: A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Cameron Duke (@dukeofcam) Video Director, Narrator, and Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Chan, M. M., Smith, Z. D., Egli, D., Regev, A., & Meissner, A. (2012). Mouse ooplasm confers context-specific reprogramming capacity. Nature Genetics, 44(9), 978–980. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2382 Dean, W., Santos, F., & Reik, W. (2003). Epigenetic reprogramming in early mammalian development and following somatic nuclear transfer. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 14(1), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1084-9521(02)00141-6 Evans, M. J., Gurer, C., Loike, J. D., Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., & Schon, E. A. (1999). Mitochondrial DNA genotypes in nuclear transfer-derived cloned sheep. Nature Genetics, 23(1), 90–93. https://doi.org/10.1038/12696 Gao, R., Wang, C., Gao, Y., et al. (2018). Inhibition of Aberrant DNA Re-methylation Improves Post-implantation Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos. Cell Stem Cell, 23(3), 426–435.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2018.07.017 Histone Deacetylase - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Www.Sciencedirect.Com. Retrieved March 2, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/histone-deacetylase Hochedlinger, K., & Plath, K. (2009). Epigenetic reprogramming and induced pluripotency. Development, 136(4), 509–523. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.020867 Hochedlinger, K., Rideout, W. M., Kyba, M., Daley, G. Q., Blelloch, R., & Jaenisch, R. (2004). Nuclear transplantation, embryonic stem cells and the potential for cell therapy. The Hematology Journal, 5, S114–S117. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.thj.6200435 Lister, R., Pelizzola, M., Kida, Y. S., et al. (2011). Hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 471(7336), 68–73. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09798 Morgan, H. D., Santos, F.,

Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/2UGB30qCbvs. Because of the way genetic reprogramming works, it’s hard to make one clone based on an adult cell, and it’s almost impossible to make a second-generation one. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. Clone: An organism produced asexually from one ancestor, to which they are genetically identical. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main component of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information. Embryo: An unborn or unhatched offspring early in the process of development. Enzyme: A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Gene: A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring. These are encoded within DNA and help determine traits. Genetic Reprogramming: This refers to erasing and remodeling epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation during mammalian development. Zygote: A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Cameron Duke (@dukeofcam) Video Director, Narrator, and Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Chan, M. M., Smith, Z. D., Egli, D., Regev, A., & Meissner, A. (2012). Mouse ooplasm confers context-specific reprogramming capacity. Nature Genetics, 44(9), 978–980. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2382 Dean, W., Santos, F., & Reik, W. (2003). Epigenetic reprogramming in early mammalian development and following somatic nuclear transfer. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 14(1), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1084-9521(02)00141-6 Evans, M. J., Gurer, C., Loike, J. D., Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., & Schon, E. A. (1999). Mitochondrial DNA genotypes in nuclear transfer-derived cloned sheep. Nature Genetics, 23(1), 90–93. https://doi.org/10.1038/12696 Gao, R., Wang, C., Gao, Y., et al. (2018). Inhibition of Aberrant DNA Re-methylation Improves Post-implantation Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos. Cell Stem Cell, 23(3), 426–435.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2018.07.017 Histone Deacetylase - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Www.Sciencedirect.Com. Retrieved March 2, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/histone-deacetylase Hochedlinger, K., & Plath, K. (2009). Epigenetic reprogramming and induced pluripotency. Development, 136(4), 509–523. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.020867 Hochedlinger, K., Rideout, W. M., Kyba, M., Daley, G. Q., Blelloch, R., & Jaenisch, R. (2004). Nuclear transplantation, embryonic stem cells and the potential for cell therapy. The Hematology Journal, 5, S114–S117. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.thj.6200435 Lister, R., Pelizzola, M., Kida, Y. S., et al. (2011). Hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 471(7336), 68–73. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09798 Morgan, H. D., Santos, F.,

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