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Die Universitätsbibliothek (UB) verfügt über ein umfangreiches Archiv an elektronischen Medien, das von Volltextsammlungen über Zeitungsarchive, Wörterbücher und Enzyklopädien bis hin zu ausführlichen Bibliographien und mehr als 1000 Datenbanken reicht. Auf iTunes U stellt die UB unter anderem eine Auswahl an elektronischen Publikationen der Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler an der LMU bereit. (Dies ist der 12. von 22 Teilen der Sammlung 'Medizin - Open Access LMU'.)

Medizin - Open Access LMU - Teil 12/22 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

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Die Universitätsbibliothek (UB) verfügt über ein umfangreiches Archiv an elektronischen Medien, das von Volltextsammlungen über Zeitungsarchive, Wörterbücher und Enzyklopädien bis hin zu ausführlichen Bibliographien und mehr als 1000 Datenbanken reicht. Auf iTunes U stellt die UB unter anderem eine Auswahl an elektronischen Publikationen der Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler an der LMU bereit. (Dies ist der 12. von 22 Teilen der Sammlung 'Medizin - Open Access LMU'.)

    Overcoming the barriers to effective glycaemic control for type 2 diabetes

    Overcoming the barriers to effective glycaemic control for type 2 diabetes

    Striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding of risperidone in schizophrenic patients as assessed by 123I-iodobenzamide SPECT: a comparative study with olanzapine

    Striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding of risperidone in schizophrenic patients as assessed by 123I-iodobenzamide SPECT: a comparative study with olanzapine

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the degree of striatal dopamine-(D2) receptor blockade by two atypical antipsychotic drugs, risperidone and olanzapine. The percentage of D2 receptor occupancy during treatment was calculated by comparing the results of 123I-iodobenzamide SPECT with those from healthy control subjects. Twenty inpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective psychosis according to DSM IV/ICD-10 criteria were treated with clinically recommended doses of risperidone and compared with 13 inpatients treated with up to 20 mg olanzapine. Neuroleptic dose and D2 receptor blockade correlated strongly for both risperidone (Pearson r = –0.86, p = 0.0001) and olanzapine (Pearson r = –0.77, p = 0.002). There was no significant difference between the D2 receptor occupancy of the two substances when given in the clinically recommended dose range (unpaired t-test, t= –0.112, p=0.911).

    The current diagnosis of superficial bladder cancer must be reconsidered

    The current diagnosis of superficial bladder cancer must be reconsidered

    The high recurrence and progression rates in superficial bladder cancer are partially related to the deficiencies of the standard conventional diagnostic modalities. Therefore, innovative noninvasive and invasive detection devices have been studied during the last decade. New diagnostic urine markers are under intensive investigation in order to exclude the presence of urothelial cancer, but the value of all these tests is still insufficiently validated in diagnosis and follow-up. With the introduction of 5-amino-levulinic acid fluorescence endoscopy, the efficacy of the detection device has been significantly improved. Flat lesions such as carcinoma in situ can be completely detected besides exophytic tumors. This is of particular importance because the fate of the patient depends to an important extent on these tumor entities. Furthermore, first experimental results using imaging devices like optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy promise new powerful noninvasive tools for `optical sectioning' of the bladder.

    Clinical relevance of soluble c-erbB-2 for patients with metastatic breast cancer predicting the response to second-line hormone or chemotherapy

    Clinical relevance of soluble c-erbB-2 for patients with metastatic breast cancer predicting the response to second-line hormone or chemotherapy

    Concentrations of soluble c-erbB-2 were determined in the sera of 64 patients with distant metastasis from advanced breast cancer receiving second-line hormone or chemotherapy in comparison to 35 breast cancer patients without detectable recurrent disease and 17 healthy blood donors. The sera of non-metastatic breast cancer patients contained s-erbB-2 concentrations similar to those of healthy blood donors. Patients with distant metastasis from advanced breast cancer had significantly higher values of s-erbB-2 in comparison to patients with non-disseminated disease (mean: 59.6 vs. 11.6 U/ml; p = 0.022). A significant correlation was observed between s-erbB-2 serum levels and serum LDH concentrations (p 0.001), levels of alkaline phosphatase (p 0.001), and the presence of hepatic metastasis (p = 0.001). Time to tumor progression was significantly shorter in patients with s-erbB-2 levels above 40 U/ml (mean: 23.4 vs. 56.7 months; p = 0.002). Furthermore, breast cancer patients with hepatic metastasis and those with elevated s-erbB-2 serum levels above 40 U/ml had limited response to hormone or chemotherapy. Non-responders had significantly higher s-erbB-2 levels (mean: 270.3, range: 42-500 U/ml;) compared with the responder group (mean: 23.1, range: 0-149 U/ml; p 0.001). Logistic regression analysis indicated that elevated s-erbB-2 serum levels above 40 U/ml independently predicted an unfavorable response to second-line hormone or chemotherapy in patients with advanced metastatic breast cancer. Copyright (C) 2002 S. KargerAG, Basel.

    Kinetics of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in organ cultures of bronchial epithelium and tumor

    Kinetics of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in organ cultures of bronchial epithelium and tumor

    Background: 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence improves the differentiation of tumor and normal tissue in the bladder, skin and brain. Objective: The kinetics of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence in organ cultures of normal human bronchial epithelium and cocultures of bronchial epithelium and tumor have been studied. Methods: Cultured biopsies of bronchial epithelium were exposed for 5 or 15 min, or continuously to 5-ALA. PPIX fluorescence was quantified for up to 300 min by spectroscopy. Cocultures of normal bronchial epithelium and a non-small-cell lung cancer cell line (EPLC-32M1) were incubated with 5-ALA. Space-resolved fluorescence microscopy was used to quantify PPIX fluorescence kinetics in the tumor and normal epithelium. Results: In cultures of normal epithelium, PPIX fluorescence kinetics were shown to depend on the duration of exposure to 5-ALA. There was a trend to higher fluorescence intensities with longer exposure times. In cocultures of bronchial epithelium and tumor, increases of fluorescence intensity were significantly greater in the tumor. Best tumor/normal tissue fluorescence ratios were found between 110 and 160 min after exposure to 5-ALA. Conclusion: Data obtained in this coculture system of bronchial epithelium and tumor is valuable to optimize modalities of fluorescence bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of early bronchial carcinoma. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

    Predictors of course and outcome in hypochondriasis after cognitive-behavioral treatment

    Predictors of course and outcome in hypochondriasis after cognitive-behavioral treatment

    Background. Predictors of treatment outcome were evaluated in a clinical sample suffering from hypochondriasis. Methods: The sample consisted of 96 patients with hypochondriacal disorder according to DSM-IV or high syndrome scores on the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) or Whiteley Index (WI). After intense inpatient cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT), 60% of the patients were classified as responders because of substantial improvements or recovery from hypochondriacal symptomatology. Results: Non-responders were characterized by a higher degree of pre-treatment hypochondriasis, more somatization symptoms and general psychopathology (SCL-90R), more dysfunctional cognitions related to bodily functioning, higher levels of psychosocial impairments, and more utilization of the health care system as indicated by the number of hospital days and costs for inpatient treatments and medication. No predictive value was found for sociodemographic variables, comorbidity with other mental disorders and chronicity. Multiple linear regression showed that pre-treatment variables significantly predicted IAS scores at post-treatment (R-2 = 0.59), changes during treatment (0.10), IAS scores at follow-up two years later (0.41) and changes between baseline and follow-up (0.25). Conclusions: The results demonstrate the relevance of various psychopathological variables and health care utilization as important indicators for outcome and further course of clinical hypochondriasis. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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