100 episodes

Each 15-minute podcast begins with an overview of the issue’s contents and main take-home messages for busy clinicians on the run. This is followed by a deep dive into a featured article of particular clinical significance: views will be heard from both author and editor teams for a “behind the scenes” look at the publication. Expect a fun, highly conversational and clinically-focused session each week!

Circulation on the Run Carolyn Lam, MBBS, PhD

    • Life Sciences

Each 15-minute podcast begins with an overview of the issue’s contents and main take-home messages for busy clinicians on the run. This is followed by a deep dive into a featured article of particular clinical significance: views will be heard from both author and editor teams for a “behind the scenes” look at the publication. Expect a fun, highly conversational and clinically-focused session each week!

    Circulation February 18, 2020 Issue

    Circulation February 18, 2020 Issue

    Dr Biykem Bozkurt: I am Biykem Bozkurt, Professor of Medicine from Baylor College of Medicine, Senior Associate Editor for Circulation and today, I'm joined with Sana Al-Khatib, Professor of Medicine from Duke University, Senior Associate Editor of Circulation, for the podcast for the fourth annual Go Red for Women issue for Circulation. As all our listeners are aware, cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death among women, but we have significant gaps in our awareness and treatments, and with a recognition of these disparities for cardiovascular care in women, AHA has launched a Go Red for Women campaign back in 2004. We have made great strides, and despite the improvement in awareness, significant gaps persist and adverse trends are emerging for cardiovascular disease in women.
    With such recognition, in 2017, Circulation launched the annual Go Red for Women issue, dedicated to cover transformative science, exciting new treatment strategies, recent epidemiological trends, and with an intent to close the gaps and eliminate the disparities for cardiovascular care in women. This is the fourth Go Red for Women issue and we have an exciting portfolio that we'd like to share with our readers and listeners. In this issue, we have quite a few important papers. The first two that we would like to start with are going over the epidemiologic trends. Sana, do you want to walk us through the two papers that we have on myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death?
    Dr Sana Al-Khatib: I would love to start with the paper on sudden cardiac death, which is very fitting. That's what I focus most of my work on. This particular paper actually looked at sudden cardiac death as the first manifestation of heart disease in women, and it was focused on the Oregon sudden unexpected death study, the timeframe for which was between 2004 and 2016 and what they really wanted to do is to assess sex specific trends in sudden cardiac death incidence. And so they focused on out of hospital, sudden cardiac death cases among adults during that time period.
    And they divided that 12-year period from February 2004 to January 2016 into three four-year intervals, 2004 to 2007, 2008 to 2011 and 2012 to 2015. And they really looked at these trends among women and men and they found that there were 2,938 sudden cardiac deaths, 37% of who were women. And they found an interesting U-shaped pattern of risk of sudden cardiac death with Anader in 2011. An increase in the years that followed 2011 so regarding that rebound, the rates really increased in 2013 and 2015. And when they specifically looked at women, they found that the rates of sudden cardiac death declined by 30% between the first and second four year time period and increased by 27% between the second and third period.
    Interestingly, the subsets with sudden cardiac death as the first manifestation of heart disease, accounted for 58% of the total rebound in sudden cardiac death incidence from period two to three but there was no change in the incidence over time for sudden cardiac death occurring among people with preexisting heart disease. For men actually sudden cardiac death also declined from the first to the second period, but not as much as in women and also increased between the second and third periods. Again, not as much as we saw in women. Subsets of sudden cardiac death occurring in the setting of identifiable heart disease was responsible for 55% of the rebound in overall sudden cardiac deaths incidence. Certainly some significant differences between men and women. Very exciting findings.
    Then if we actually turn our attention to the second study looking at sex specific trends in acute myocardial infarction, this particular analysis, Biykem, was done within an integrated healthcare network between 2000 and 2014 and they picked the Kaiser Permanente Southern California network. They were

    • 29 min
    Circulation February 11, 2020 Issue

    Circulation February 11, 2020 Issue

    Dr Carolyn Lam: Welcome to Circulation on the Run, your weekly podcast summary and backstage pass to the Journal and its editors. I'm Dr Carolyn Lam, associate editor from the National Heart Center and Duke National University of Singapore.
    Dr Greg Hundley: And I'm Dr Greg Hundley, associate editor, director of the Pauley Heart Center at VCU Health in Richmond, Virginia. Well, Carolyn, our feature article this week relates to an international multi-center evidence-based reappraisal of genes reported to cause congenital long QT syndrome. But, before we get to that, how about if we grab a cup of coffee and start on our other papers? Do you have one you'd like to discuss?
    Dr Carolyn Lam: Yes. My favorite part of the week. So this first paper really asks the question, "What's the association between HDL functional characteristics, as opposed to HDL cholesterol levels, and acute coronary syndrome?" The paper comes from Dr Hernáez from IDIBAPS in Barcelona, Spain and colleagues who conducted a case control study nested within the PREDIMED cohort.
    Originally a randomized trial where participants followed a Mediterranean or low-fat diet. Cases of incident acute coronary syndrome were individually matched one is to two to controls by sex, age, intervention group, body mass index, and follow-up time. The authors measure it the following functional characteristics, which were HDL cholesterol concentration, cholesterol efflux capacity, antioxidant ability, phospholipase A2 activity and sphingosine-1-phosphate, apolipoproteins A1 and A4, serum amyloid A and complement 3 protein.
    Dr Greg Hundley: Wow Carolyn, a detailed analysis. What did they find?
    Dr Carolyn Lam: They found that low values of cholesterol efflux capacity, and levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate and apolipoprotein A1 in HDL or all associated with a higher risk of acute coronary syndrome in high cardiovascular risk individuals, irrespective of HDL cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. Low cholesterol efflux capacity values and sphingo-1-phosphate levels were particularly associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, whereas HDL antioxidant or anti-inflammatory capacity was inversely related to unstable angina.
    Now this is significant because it's the first longitudinal study to comprehensively examine the association of several HDL function related biomarkers with incident acute coronary syndrome beyond HDL cholesterol levels in a high-risk cardiovascular risk population.
    Greg Hundley: Very nice. Carolyn. It sounds like function over just the levels is important.
    Dr Carolyn Lam: Exactly, you summarized it well. Well Greg, I've got another paper and I want to pick your brain first. Is it your impression that type 2 myocardial infarction, the type that occurs due to acute imbalance in myocardial oxygen supply versus demand in the absence of atherothrombosis, do you think that this type of MI is on the rise? It seems more and more common in my country.
    Dr Greg Hundley: Do we want to say it's on the rise? Certainly by measuring all these high sensitivity troponins, et cetera, we're finding, I think, more evidence of type 2 MI. So, all in all, yeah it probably is on the rise, but likely related to some of our measurement techniques.
    Dr Carolyn Lam: Oh, you are so smart, Greg. Because this paper that I'm about to tell you about really addresses some of these issues and it's from corresponding author Dr Gulati from Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. And they really start by acknowledging that despite being frequently encountered in clinical practice, the population base incidents and trends of type 2 myocardial infarction is unknown and long-term outcomes are incompletely characterized. So they prospectively recruited 5,640 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota who experienced an event associated with cardiac troponin T greater than 99

    • 21 min

    Circulation January 28, 2020 Issue

    Circulation January 28, 2020 Issue

    Dr Carolyn Lam: Welcome to Circulation On the Run, your weekly podcast summary and backstage pass to the journal and its editors. I'm Dr Carolyn Lam, Associate Editor from the National Heart Center and Duke National University of Singapore.
    Dr Greg Hundley: I'm Dr Greg Hundley, also Associate Editor, the Director of the Pauley Heart Center at VCU Health in Richmond, Virginia.
    Dr Carolyn Lam: Say, Greg, you know the feature paper this week talks about the perennially hot topic now and that is transcatheter aortic valve replacement or TAVR or TAVI. It's actually data from the France TAVI Registry comparing balloon expandable versus self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
    I'm sure you want to hear more about it, but first I'm going to tell you about another paper in the same issue, this time also comparing a balloon expandable versus a self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve implantation, but data from a nationwide analysis and from corresponding author Dr Fauchier from Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Trousseau. He and his colleagues basically did a head to head comparison of the two competing transcatheter aortic valve replacement technologies that have been published but have not really been followed for long-term clinical outcomes. This was comparing balloon expandable versus self-expanding technology.
    They collected information from more than 31,000 consecutive patients treated with Tavern in France between 2014 and 2018 and based this on the French administrative hospital discharge database. They did propensity score matching, which was used for the analysis of outcomes according to the Sapien 3 balloon expandable versus the Evolut R self-expanding TAVR technology and studied this as nationwide level in France.
    Dr Greg Hundley: Wow. Carolyn, 31,000 patients. That's a really large study. What did they find?
    Dr Carolyn Lam: They basically found that balloon expandable TAVR was associated with lower mortality rehospitalization heart failure and pacemaker implantation compared with the self-expanding TAVR. Now, that's of course a pretty big finding and this is discussed along with the feature paper that we're going to hear about in an editorial by Drs. Abdel-Wahab and Thiele from Heart Center Leipzig.
    I want to tell you about another paper before I let you tell you about yours, okay?
    Dr Greg Hundley: Sounds great, Carolyn.
    Dr Carolyn Lam: Greg, what is your clinical impression of Impella use in the United States among patients undergoing PCI? Do you think it's increasing or decreasing over time? As a reminder, Impella was approved for mechanical circulatory support in 2008, so from then, what do you think?
    Dr Greg Hundley: You know, Carolyn, I really think it's increasing, especially used more frequently rather than an intra-aortic balloon pump. How about you? What's going on in your area of the world?
    Dr Carolyn Lam: My impression too, but you know, you're lucky because we now have data looking at the trends in Impella use, but in the United States, and this comes from the corresponding author, Dr Amit Amin from Washington University School of Medicine and colleagues who describe clinical outcomes and costs across U.S. hospitals in PCI patients treated with mechanical circulatory support, which is either the Impella or the intra-aortic balloon pump.
    They found that among more than 48,300 real world patients undergoing PCI with mechanical circulatory support at 432 hospitals between 2004 and 2016 in the Premier Healthcare Database, Impella use was indeed found to be rapidly increasing with marked variability across hospitals and not only its use, but also in its associated adverse outcomes. When analyzed by time periods or at the level of the hospitals or at the level of the patients, Impella use was associated with higher rates of adverse events and higher hospital costs.
    Dr Greg Hundley: You kno

    • 23 min
    Circulation January 21, 2020 Issue

    Circulation January 21, 2020 Issue

    Dr. Carolyn Lam: Welcome to Circulation on the Run, your weekly podcast summary and backstage pass to the journal and its editors. I'm Carolyn Lam, Associate Editor from National Heart Center at Duke National University of Singapore.
    Dr. Greg Hundley: And I'm Greg Hundley, Associate Editor, Director of the Pauley Heart Center in Richmond, Virginia.
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: Greg, it is so good to be back. I just love doing these podcasts with you and what more when we get to feature a paper like the one that we have this week. It's all about high sensitivity, cardiac troponin and the universal definition of myocardial infarction, one of these evergreen topics that we truly need to understand better. But before we go onto that, I want to share my first paper. It's a preclinical paper and it provides an important breakthrough discovery that could protect the heart against progressive left ventricular systolic dysfunction following injury. Want to hear about it?
    Dr. Greg Hundley: Absolutely.
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: Okay. It's from course wanting authors, Drs Sabourin and Benitah from INSERM University, Paris, as well as Doctors Foster and Beech from University of Leeds.
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: Now, whereas store operated calcium entry has recently gained attention in cardiac pathophysiology, the role of the prototypic store operated channel known as Orai1 remains elusive. So these authors used a novel genetically modified mouse that specifically disrupts the Orai1 channel in cardiomyocytes and showed that functional inhibition of Orai1 preserved alterations of calcium homeostasis, fibrosis and systolic function without affecting hypertrophy. A novel in vivo small molecule Orai1 channel inhibitor, in fact, markedly improve left ventricular systolic function and calcium handling after pressure overload without causing adverse effects.
    Dr. Greg Hundley: Tell me, how does this help me as a clinician?
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: All right, you always ask the tough questions. Well, these results really suggest that Orai1 inhibition has the potential for favorable hemodynamic value in the protection of the heart from maladaptive hypotrophy, and therefore might represent a new way to provide inotropic support to help relieve systolic dysfunction.
    Dr. Greg Hundley: Very good. Well Carolyn, my first paper is from Dr Peter Kudenchuk from University of Washington Medical Center and this study evaluates the overall survivor after out of hospital cardiac arrest from shock refractory ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia related to the route of accessory drug administration. So to accomplish this, the investigators had 2,358 individuals that had received Amiodarone, lidocaine or placebo study drugs and randomized to an IV route.
    Dr. Greg Hundley: And then they also included 661 patients that received the same medications, but they were randomized to an intraosseous route.
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: So what were the results, Greg?
    Dr. Greg Hundley: Well, Carolyn, while no significant effect modification by drug administration route was observed point estimates for the effects of both drugs, both the lidocaine and the Amiodarone, compared to placebo were greater for the IV, as opposed to the intraosseous route and that was across all outcomes. And they had significant increases in survival to hospital admission and discharge and favored improved neurological outcomes with the IV administration.
    Dr. Greg Hundley: Unfortunately, however, the study was underpowered to examine for an interaction between the route of vascular access and drug effectiveness and thus additional studies are needed to determine whether Amiodarone in lidocaine may be lifesaving drugs in patients with shock refractory out of hospital cardiac arrest when given IV, but not necessarily intraosseous.
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: Very interesting. Well, my next paper is really focused on HIV infec

    • 21 min
    Circulation January 14, 2020 Issue

    Circulation January 14, 2020 Issue

    Dr Greg Hundley: Welcome listeners. This is Dr Greg Hundley from the VCU Pauley Heart Center in Richmond, who is in the second of his two-week stint without his dear friend, Dr Carolyn Lam who will be returning in a week or two. Our feature article this week is from Dr Mikhail Kosiborod from Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute and the Georgia Institute for Global Health, and University of New South Wales. And we'll review the effects of dapagliflozin on quality of life and other metrics in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. But first, let's have a look at the other articles in this issue and just like last week we've got four other original manuscripts. The first two are sort of clinically related and that very first article comes from Dr Ben Levine from University of Texas Southwestern and he serves as the corresponding author and he's examining future predictors of the development of heart failure and preserved ejection fraction or HFpEF.
    His team tested the hypothesis as to whether patients with LVH and elevated cardiac biomarkers would demonstrate elevated LV myocardial stiffness when compared to healthy controls as a key marker for future HFpEF. The team recruited 46 patients with LVH. The LV septum was greater than 11 millimeters and elevated cardiac biomarkers, so the NTproBNP was greater than 40 or the cardiac troponin T was greater than 0.6. And they were recruited along with 61 age and sex-matched cohort of healthy controls. To define LV pressure volume relationships, right heart catheterization and 3D echocardiography were performed while preload was manipulated using lower body negative pressure and rapid saline infusion. They found that the left ventricle was less distensible in the LVH patients relative to the controls, that is they had a smaller volume for the same filling pressure. When preload was expressed as transmural filling pressure or wedge pressure minus right atrial pressure left ventricular myocardial stiffness was nearly 30% greater in the LVH group compared to the controls.
    The author's note that although LV myocardial stiffness of LVH patients was greater than that of the healthy controls at this relatively early stage, further studies are required to clarify whether interventions such as exercise training to improve LV compliance may prevent the full manifestation of the HFpEF syndrome in these high-risk individuals.
    Well, the second paper comes from Professor John McMurry of the British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Center at the University of Glasgow in the United Kingdom. And the paper is somewhat similar to our feature article because it emanates from the DAPA Heart Failure dataset that we will hear about later. So in this paper, the authors examined the effects of Dapagliflozin according to age, given potential concerns about the efficacy and safety of therapies in the elderly in the prior trial. A clinical trial that as we know, demonstrated that a reduced risk of mortality and heart failure hospitalizations occurred in patients with HFrEF.
    So in this current study, a total of 4,744 patients that were 22 to 94 years of age were randomized. 636 were less than 55 years of age, 1,242 we're 55 to 64 years of age 1,717 were 65 to 74, and finally 1,149 were greater than 75 years of age. Consistent benefits were observed for the components of the primary outcome of all-cause mortality and symptoms across all the age groups. Although the adverse events and the study drug discontinuation increased with age, neither was significantly more common with Dapagliflozin across any of the age groups. There was no significant imbalance and tolerability or safety events between Dapagliflozin and placebo, even in the very old population group. So we'll have more to discuss later in the feature discussion with a second paper that really looks also at the DAPA-HF study

    • 24 min

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