Vybrané výrazy týkající se zdraví v 26 lekcích.
It's very bad to interfere at the site of the bite. You shouldn't make incisions, cut marks with a dirty penknife or anything else. You shouldn't suck out the venom, you shouldn't apply a tight band or tourniquet to obstruct the blood flow, you should not apply an electric shock which has been quite popular and fashionable recently, in recent years. All these very popular remedies for snakebite are far more harmful than they are beneficial. The key thing to do is to try to immobilise the bitten limb because the more you contract your muscles in the arm or leg that's been bitten, the more likely you are to pump venom into the system. So try to immobilise the limb, with a sling in the case of the arm or a splint in the case of the leg, and if you have such a thing, a very good way of keeping the limb still is to bind it up with a long, stretchy bandage, a crepe bandage. Vocabulary incisions - naříznutí venom - hadí jed suck out the venom - vysát jed tourniquet - obinadlo, škrtidlo apply a tourniquet - zaškrtit blood flow - krevní oběh to obstruct the blood flow - bránit krevnímu oběhu snakebite - uštknutí hadem immobilise - znehybnit limb - končetina pump - pumpovat to pump venom into the system - napumpovat jed do systému sling - závěsná páska splint - dlaha in the case of the leg - pokud jde o nohu
Professor David Worral: Most jellyfish have a sting of sorts and some are lethally dangerous such as the famous, notorious box jellyfish. What happens, if the, these box jellyfish touch you with their long tentacles, the tentacles will be broken off and the tentacles have thousands of little stinging cells. So, the point of first aid here is to stop those stinging cells discharging venom through the skin which in exceptional circumstances can cause rapid death, and the very best thing you can do is to slosh a whole lot of vinegar or dilute acetic acid on the skin. Vocabulary: sting, stinging - bodlina/žihadlo, spálit/bodnout Most jellyfish have a sting of sorts. - Většina medúz dokáže člověka žahnout. lethally dangerous - smrtelně nebezpečný the notorious box jellyfish - nechvalně známá (proslulá) hranatka tentacles - chapadla The tentacles have thousands of little stinging cells. - Chapadla obsahují tisíce žahavých buněk. discharge venom - vypouštět, vylučovat jed to slosh - nalít, propláchnout vinegar - ocet dilute acetic acid - zředěná kyselina octová The very best thing you can do is to slosh a whole lot of vinegar or dilute acetic acid on the skin. - Nejlepší je polít postižené místo octem, či zředěnou kyselinou octovou.
Professor David Worral: Fish stings are extremely painful. This is one of those beautiful, highly coloured, reef fish like the lion fish or turkey fish that are found in tropical waters which can sting with spikes along their back, or on their fins or gill covers. The very best remedy for this excruciating pain from a fish sting is to apply very hot but not scalding water and this produces a magically rapid diminution in the pain because the fish venom is rapidly broken down by heat. Vocabulary: painful - bolestivý Fish stings are extremely painful. - Rybí bodnutí je velmi bolestivé. coloured - pestrobarevný reef - korálový útes spikes - bodliny, trny fin - ploutev gill covers - žaberní víčko They can sting with spikes along their back or on their fins or gill covers. - Dokážou člověka bodnout trny, které mají na zádech, případně v ocasní ploutvi, či na víčkách žaber. excruciating pain - mučivá, nesnesitelná bolest scalding - vařící very hot but not scalding water - velmi horká ale ne vařící magically rapid - zázračně rychlý, náhlý diminution in the pain - snížení, zeslabení bolesti
Professor David Worral: As long as the sting is embedded, it will be pumping venom into the wound, so you should remove the sting as quickly as possible and a recent study suggests that it doesn't matter how you do this, pull it out between your fingers, scrape it out perhaps even better, but remove the sting as quickly as possible. The best way to prevent these things is to learn more about which venomous animals there are living in your particular area; learn as much as you can about their habits so that you can avoid the particular places that they like to congregate in. You can avoid particular times of the year when they are particularly active and you can avoid dangerous behaviour - I mean obvious dangerous behaviour would be walking at night along paths in the undergrowth without a torch. Vocabulary: to embed - zapíchnout as long as the sting is embedded - dokud je žihadlo zapíchnuté to pump, pumping - vstříknout, vstřikovat wound - rána pumping venom into the wound - vstříkování jedu do těla to scrape out - vyškrábnout venomous animals - jedovatí živočichové to learn about their habits - poznat jejich zvyky to congregate in - shromažďovat se dangerous behaviour - nebezpečné chování undergrowth - podrost, zarostlé místo Dangerous behaviour would be walking at night along paths in the undergrowth without a torch. - Nebezpečné by bylo například kráčet v noci podrostem bez baterky.
Dr. William Bosu: Fever is commonly due to infection but we also have other causes of fever. This could be due, for example, to a body reaction to something that is not good for the body, it could also be due to a drug, it could also be due to a cancer. Indeed there are various other causes of fever. If we opened the windows to allow some fresh air in, the patient may feel more comfortable. Well, in addition to this, you could remove the patient's clothes or we could take a shower or we could soak a towel and rub it gently over the patient's body and when some fresh air has blown over this patient, the temperature would usually come down. Vocabulary: fever - horečka infection - infekce Fever is commonly due to infection. - Příčinou horečky je nejčastěji infekce. a body reaction - reakce těla drug - lék cancer - rakovina It could also be due to a drug, it could also be due to a cancer. - Příčinou může být také nějaký lék, nebo výjimečně i rakovina. fresh air - čerstvý vzduch comfortable - cítit se dobře, mít pohodlí, být v pohodě If we open the windows to allow some fresh air in, the patient may feel more comfortable. - Pacient se může cítit příjemněji, když otevřeme okno a pustíme dovnitř trochu čerstvého vzduchu. shower - sprcha soak a towel - namočit ručník temperature - teplota to come down - snížit se, klesnout
Jill Volpie: This is very frightening and one's got to remind oneself to stay calm in these situations. If at all possible these days, it's important to try to avoid at least, direct contact with blood. Everyone, everywhere these days needs to be mindful of the risk of HIV and we need to take care but of course one also has to do something and try and stop the bleeding. The problem with that is that of course it also stops the circulation to the lower end of that limb, and this is very, very dangerous because it can lead very quickly, surprisingly quickly, to gangrene and (it's) quite possible then for your patient to actually have to lose a whole limb, the tissue in the limb can die quite quickly. Vocabulary: frightening - děsivý, hrozný to stay calm - zachovat klid, chladnou hlavu blood - krev to avoid direct contact with blood - vyhnout se přímému kontaktu s krví to be mindful - být si něčeho vědom, být dbalý be mindful of the risk of HIV - nesmí zapomínat na nebezpečí nákazy virem HIV bleeding - krvácení to stop the bleeding - zastavit krvácení circulation - krevní oběh a tourniquet stops the circulation - zaškrcením končetiny zastavíte krevní oběh gangrene - gangréna tissue - tkáň the tissue in the limb can die quite quickly - tkáň končetiny může velice snadno odumřít