399 episodes

The JCO Podcast hosted by Dr. Shannon Westin features discussions of new and noteworthy results published in ASCO’s Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO) Podcast American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)

    • Science
    • 3.7 • 36 Ratings

The JCO Podcast hosted by Dr. Shannon Westin features discussions of new and noteworthy results published in ASCO’s Journal of Clinical Oncology.

    Commonly Held Beliefs About Cancer Survivorship

    Commonly Held Beliefs About Cancer Survivorship

    Dr. Shannon Westin and her guests, Dr. Emily S. Tonorezos and
    Dr. Michael Halpern, discuss their article, "Myths and Presumptions About Cancer Survivorship" recently published in the JCO.
    TRANSCRIPT
    The guests on this podcast episode have no disclosures to declare.  
    Shannon Westin:Hello, everyone, and welcome to another episode of JCO After Hours, the podcast where we go in depth on manuscripts published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. I am your host, Social Media Editor of the JCO, Shannon Westin, and also a GYN Oncologist by trade. I'm thrilled to bring a topic that is very close to my heart. We're going to be talking about a Comments and Controversies article published in the JCO on November 16, 2023, entitled "Myths and Presumptions about Cancer Survivorship." I know you all will find this topic as enthralling as I have, and the authors do not have any conflicts of interest. 
    I'm joined by two of the authors on this important work. The first is Dr. Michael Halpern, he’s the Medical Officer in the Health Assessment Research Branch of the Health Care Delivery Research Program. Welcome, Dr. Halpern.
    Dr. Michael Halpern: Thank you for having us on.
    Shannon Westin: We're also accompanied by Dr. Emily Tonorezos, the Director of the Office of Cancer Survivorship, and both of them work in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. Welcome. 
    Dr. Emily Tonorezos: Thank you for having us.
    Shannon Westin: So, let's get right into it. I want to level set first. I would love for one or both of you to speak a little bit about the state of cancer survivorship currently. What's the prevalence of cancer survivors here in the US? Globally? What do we expect as time passes?
    Dr. Emily Tonorezos: Thank you for starting with this question. In the Office of Cancer Survivorship, we use a definition of cancer survivor that we got from the advocacy community many years ago. We use a definition that says “a person is a cancer survivor from the time of diagnosis through the balance of life.” That means in the United States, we estimate that we have a little over 18 million cancer survivors, and globally, it's a little more difficult to estimate those numbers. Not every country has a cancer registry to count the number of cases, but we think there are upwards of 53 million cancer survivors diagnosed within the last five years in the world.
    Shannon Westin: Wow. And so this is why it's so important, such a large number, and that's just an estimate. And we know this is only going to be growing. I personally learned so much from your manuscript, which is critically based on the understanding that our beliefs as practitioners truly impact the way we care for our cancer survivors. I admit, I definitely held or hold some of these beliefs, and I'm certainly grateful that you're providing that objective evidence to support or refute these claims. 
    So, with that being said, let's tackle the first one that you all approached: Shared care results in the best outcomes for cancer survivors. I think first I'd love to hear about what your definition of shared care is. What does that really mean in the context of cancer survivorship?
    Dr. Michael Halpern: Shared care is a deliberate process to coordinate and integrate components of survivorship care between specialty, in this case, oncology providers, and primary care providers. And part of the issues with this belief about shared care being the best have to do with the broad practice experience of survivorship care. While the ideal definition is this integrated and coordinated care, shared care can range from one extreme to being essentially oncologist-led care - where the oncologist also sends information to the primary care providers; and to the other extreme - care led by primary care providers and an oncologist is available to answer questions as needed. So part of the issue with the available li

    • 17 min
    JCO Article Insights: Long Term Follow Up of the RESORT (E4402) and LYSA Study

    JCO Article Insights: Long Term Follow Up of the RESORT (E4402) and LYSA Study

    In this JCO Article Insights episode, Alexandra Rojek provides a summary on two long term follow studies: "Long-Term Follow-Up of Rituximab Maintenance in Young Patients With Mantle-Cell Lymphoma Included in the LYMA Trial: A LYSA Study" by Sarkozy, et al published on December 18th, 2023 and "Long Term Follow Up of the RESORT Study (E4402): A Randomized Phase III Comparison of Two Different Rituximab Dosing Strategies for Low Tumor Burden Follicular Lymphoma," by Kahl, et al, published January 9, 2024.
    TRANSCRIPT
    The guest on this podcast episode has no disclosures to declare.
    Alexandra Rojek: Hello and welcome to JCO Article Insights. I'm your host, Alexandra Rojek, and today we will be discussing two clinical trial updates published in the March 1st issue of JCO, focusing on the long-term outcomes of rituximab therapy for patients with lymphoma. The first paper discusses the use of maintenance rituximab for mantle cell lymphoma patients in the LYMA trial, and the second paper addresses rituximab dosing strategies for low tumor burden follicular lymphoma in the RESORT study.
    The first article by Sarkozy et al. for the LYSA group is titled "Long-Term Follow-Up of Rituximab Maintenance in Young Patients with Mantle Cell Lymphoma Included in the LYMA Trial: A LYSA Study." The LYMA trial was designed to answer whether the addition of the CD20-targeting monoclonal antibody rituximab provided additional benefit for patients with mantle cell lymphoma who achieved a response to induction chemoimmunotherapy, followed by consolidative autologous stem cell transplant in randomized patients, maintenance rituximab for three years versus observation alone. The primary analysis of the LYMA trial was published in 2017 and showed that the primary endpoint of four-year event-free survival or EFS was met at 79% in the maintenance rituximab arm compared to 61% in the observation alone arm. Additionally, there was a four-year overall survival or OS benefit of 89% versus 80% in favor of maintenance rituximab. Thus, on the basis of the LYMA trial primary analysis, the use of maintenance rituximab after consolidative autologous stem cell transplantation has become the standard of care in the field for these patients. 
    The long-term safety and efficacy data presented in this clinical trial update for the LYMA study continue to demonstrate ongoing EFS and OS benefit for patients randomized to maintenance rituximab. Patients were initially enrolled between 2008 and 2012, and 240 patients were randomized to either arm. EFS in this study was defined as absence of disease progression, relapse, or death, severe infection, or allergy to rituximab. The data cutoff for this updated analysis was April 2019, with a median follow-up from randomization of seven years for living patients with a note that this is prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. For those in the maintenance rituximab arm, the seven-year EFS was 76% compared to 46% for those under observation. For those on the rituximab arm, the majority of relapses occurred within three years of randomization and thus while on maintenance rituximab, which the authors suggest does not show an increase in incidence of relapse after the end of maintenance therapy. The seven-year overall survival was 83% for those on the rituximab arm compared to 72% for those on the observation, with a log-rank p-value of 0.08. There was no difference in causes of death between the treatment arms noted. 
    Notably, the patients who received maintenance rituximab after induction and transplant experienced a shorter second OS after relapse therapy, with a median OS2 of 1.1 years compared to 4.6 years favoring those on the observation arm, without impact of the type of salvage therapy received. Although this study was conducted before BTK inhibitors were approved in France and thus used at a low rate for patients who relapsed after initial therapy. This suggests that those who relapse after maintenance rituximab were those with

    • 10 min
    Pembrolizumab in Patients With Advanced Cancers With HTMB

    Pembrolizumab in Patients With Advanced Cancers With HTMB

    Dr. Shannon Westin and her guests, Dr. Herbert Duvivier and Dr. Richard Schilsky, discuss the paper “Pembrolizumab in Patients With Tumors With High Tumor Mutational Burden: Results From the Targeted Agent and Profiling Utilization Registry Study” published in the JCO.
    TRANSCRIPT
    The guest on this podcast episode has no disclosures to declare. 
    Shannon Westin: Hello, everyone, and welcome to another episode of JCO After Hours, the podcast where we get in-depth into articles published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. I am your host, Shannon Westin, GYN Oncologist and Social Media Editor of the JCO. As always, it is my pleasure to serve and bring this information to you. 
    Today, we will be discussing, “Pembrolizumab in Patients With Tumors With High Tumor Mutational Burden: Results From the Targeted Agent and Profiling Utilization Registry Study.” And this was published in the JCO on August 10th, 2023. 
    None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose. 
    Joining me today are two of the authors, Dr. Herbert Duvivier, the principal investigator of this arm of the TAPUR trial. Welcome.
    Dr. Herbert Duvivier: Thank you. 
    Shannon Westin: And then, of course, many of you know Dr. Richard Schilsky, who is the former CMO and Executive Vice President of ASCO and a principal investigator on the TAPUR study.  
    Dr. Richard Schilsky: Thank you, Shannon. 
    Shannon Westin: So, let's get going. I think the first thing would be great is to level set and make sure everyone knows exactly what this TAPUR basket trial is, the Targeted Agent and Profiling Utilization Registry study. Can you guys give the audience a brief description of the objective of TAPUR and maybe how it came to fruition? 
    Dr. Richard Schilsky: Sure. This is Richard Schilsky. Maybe I can start with that. The TAPUR study is a prospective, phase II, multi-basket, multi-center genomic-matching trial. Its primary objective is to identify signals of drug activity for targeted agents that are already marketed. But in the TAPUR study they are being used outside of their FDA-approved indication. The study, as you may know, was conceived in 2014, launched in 2016, and is still enrolling patients across the country. Really, the genesis of the study came from the fact that it began at the time where genomic profiling of patients with advanced cancer was becoming more commonplace. Genomic alterations that could be targeted by already marketed drugs were being identified. However, patients and doctors were having difficulty accessing these drugs because they were not used on label and were unlikely to be covered by insurance. And moreover, even if they could access the drugs, there was no organized mechanism to collect outcome data and report on the results of the patient experience receiving that treatment. 
    So those factors led to the development of TAPUR, which attempts to solve both the drug access problem by having collaborating pharmaceutical companies donate their drugs to the trial so they’re available to patients at no cost, but also implements a structured data collection mechanism so all of the relevant clinical outcomes with the patients can be collected and ultimately reported. And that’s how TAPUR came about.
    Shannon Westin: Well, it was so necessary, and I think we do so much of our oncology treatments off-label, but as we get more and more expensive drugs when we move away from chemotherapies and more targeted immunotherapies, it’s very hard to get those drugs off label. So this was such a relevant and necessary trial that had to happen, and it's a great example of leadership that you had the vision to put this together through ASCO. 
    I think the natural next question for me is having not put patients on the TAPUR study, how does a patient join this study? How do they get started? Walk us through that.
    Dr. Herbert Duvivier: At our institution, normally, all the physicians are aware of the TAPUR trial through

    • 19 min
    JCO Article Insights: Axillary Soft Tissue Involvement and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    JCO Article Insights: Axillary Soft Tissue Involvement and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    In this JCO Article Insights episode, Giselle de Souza Carvalho provides a summary on  "Pathologic Exploration of the Axillary Soft Tissue Microenvironment and Its Impact on Axillary Management and Breast Cancer Outcomes" by Naoum, et al and "Optimization of Breast Cancer Regional Nodal Management" by Braunstein et al published in the January 10, 2024 issue in Journal of Clinical Oncology. The original report discusses how the examination of axillary soft tissue beyond lymph nodes is often omitted and it predicts breast cancer outcomes and need for nodal radiation.
    TRANSCRIPT
    The guest on this podcast episode has no disclosures to declare. 
    Giselle Carvalho: Welcome to the JCO Article Insights episode for the February issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology. This is Giselle Carvalho, your host, one of the ASCO editorial fellows at JCO this year. Today, I'll be providing a summary of an article focused on “The Association of Axillary Soft Tissue Involvement on Outcomes for Breast Cancer Patients.” It was published in November 2023 and was partially presented at the 64th Annual ASCO in October 2022.
    Although lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients is correlated with a worse prognosis, the impact of extracapsular involvement is still a matter of debate, and the implications of axillary soft tissue involvement are still not fully understood. There is some evidence indicating a decrease in disease-free survival for patients with less than four lymph nodes and with extracapsular extension, while other studies show that extracapsular involvement has no prognostic role in these patients and that the number of positive lymph nodes might matter more. Patients with node-positive disease may present with only lymph node involvement or lymph node involvement plus extracapsular extension and/or axillary soft tissue involvement. The axillary soft tissue involvement can result from either direct lymph node extension through the capsule or direct microscopic spread from the primary tumor. It is pathologically defined in this article as axillary lymphatic channel invasion, axillary soft tissue deposits, axillary blood vessel invasion, or any combination of these.
    This was a retrospective study of patients with invasive breast cancer who received treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, from 2000 to 2020. Lymph nodes and surrounding adipose tissue were submitted in their entirety for histopathologic evaluation using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and immunohistochemical stains could be added at the pathologist's discretion. Eligibility criteria included primary breast cancer and positive lymph nodes without prior or contralateral breast cancer. 2,162 patients were included. They were divided into four groups according to their axillary pathology: the first group was composed of patients with positive lymph nodes with no additional axillary involvement; the second group of patients with positive lymph nodes and extracapsular involvement; the third group of patients with positive lymph nodes and axillary soft tissue involvement but with no extracapsular extension; and the fourth group of patients with positive lymph node and both extracapsular extension and axillary soft tissue involvement.
    Primary endpoints were 10-year rates of local-regional failure, which was defined as recurrence in the breast or chest wall or ipsilateral axilla, axillary failure, and distant metastasis. Among 2,162 patients, 58% had lymph node involvement only, 25% had lymph nodes with extracapsular extension, 3.5% had lymph node involvement with axillary soft tissue involvement, and 14% had lymph node involvement with both extracapsular and axillary soft tissue involvement. 51% of cases of axillary soft tissue involvement were in the form of axillary lymphatic channel invasion. The median follow-up was 9.4 years, and 74% of the cohort had hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, 10% had triple-negative disease, and 16

    • 8 min
    Omission of Radiotherapy after Breast-Conserving Surgery

    Omission of Radiotherapy after Breast-Conserving Surgery

    Dr. Shannon Westin and her guest, Dr. Reshma Jagsi, discuss the paper "Omission of Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Women With Breast Cancer With Low Clinical and Genomic Risk: 5-Year Outcomes of IDEA" recently published in the JCO.
    TRANSCRIPT
    The guest on this podcast episode has no disclosures to declare.
    Shannon Westin: Hello, everyone, and welcome to another episode of JCO After Hours, the podcast where we get in depth with manuscripts that were published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. I am your host, Shannon Westin, GYN Oncologist and Social Media Editor for the JCO. It is my pleasure to speak with Dr. Reshma Jagsi. Hello, Dr. Jagsi.
    Dr. Reshma Jagsi: Hello. Thanks for having me.
    Shannon Westin: I am so excited that you're here. Dr. Jagsi is the Lawrence W. Davis Professor and Chair of the Department of Radiation Oncology at Emory University School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute. She is going to be talking about her incredible work, "The Omission of Radiotherapy After Breast Conserving Surgery for Women with Breast Cancer with Low Clinical and Genomic Risk: Five-year Outcomes of IDEA," which was published in JCO in February 2024. 
    All right, let's get right to it. First, I want to levelset. Can you run us through some brief facts and figures about breast cancer just to make sure that all the listeners are on the same page? 
    Dr. Reshma Jagsi: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the world. It’s 12.5% of all new annual cancer cases worldwide and is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among US women. About a third of all newly diagnosed cancers in women are breast cancer, and about 13% of US women develop invasive breast cancer over their lifetime. In 2023, there were nearly 300,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer. The median age of breast cancer diagnosis is 62, meaning an awful lot of people are getting diagnosed with breast cancer in the population that we specifically chose to study. 
    Shannon Westin: Wow, you're really good at this. That's like the perfect transition to move to the next piece. So, first, I think I'd love to hear about the standard of care for the population that you were studying and how we got to this point. 
    Dr. Reshma Jagsi: We offer women who are diagnosed with early-stage invasive breast cancer the option of breast conservation, and we encourage breast conservation because, of course, it is a better-tolerated surgery than mastectomy. Many women are eligible for breast-conserving therapy. And years ago, we as radiation oncologists encouraged our surgical colleagues to refer to breast-conserving therapy as lumpectomy plus radiation, just as one set. Because the studies that have been done in the 1970s and 1980s to establish that breast conversation was equally safe and effective in treating breast cancer relied on radiation therapy to minimize in-breast tumor recurrence rate, which one of those trials independently showed that there was no difference in survival. But the ones that compared lumpectomy surgery alone to lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy did show a pretty substantial improvement in local control with the addition of radiation treatment. And so radiation treatment became a part of a parcel of breast conservation in the early 1990s when consensus statements came out favoring breast conservation as a treatment approach. 
    And so the net analysis has combined all of these studies together and showed that overall, without radiation treatment, a patient treatment with a lumpectomy had a 30% risk of in-breast tumor occurrence in those historical studies. And it was reduced by about two thirds to about 10% when that lumpectomy was followed by radiation in those historical randomized trials. But of course, we’ve made many advances in our understanding since that time, and so that’s what this study is seeking to build on.
    Shannon Westin: It makes sense. We all know that radiotherapy can lead to other issues, acute and c

    • 20 min
    Costs of Cancer Prevention in CDH1 Variant Carriers

    Costs of Cancer Prevention in CDH1 Variant Carriers

    Dr. Shannon Westin and her guests, Dr. Jeremy Davis and patient advocate Kathryn Carr, discuss the paper "Costs of Cancer Prevention: Physical and Psychosocial Sequelae of Risk-Reducing Total Gastrectomy" recently published and printed in the JCO.
    TRANSCRIPT
    Shannon Westin: Hello, everyone, and welcome to another episode of JCO After Hours, the podcast where we get in depth on manuscripts that are published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. I am your host, Shannon Westin, a professor of GYN Oncology at MD Anderson, and the JCO social media editor. I am so thrilled to have wonderful authors here today who do not have any conflicts of interest. We are going to be discussing the “Costs of Cancer Prevention: Physical and Psychosocial Sequelae of Risk-Reducing Total Gastrectomy.” This was published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology online on October 30, 2023, and in print on February 1st, 2024. 
    And I am excited. I am accompanied by the lead author, Dr. Jeremy Davis, who is an Associate Professor and Surgical Oncologist at the NIH, National Cancer Institute Intramural Research Program. Welcome, Dr. Davis. 
    Dr. Jeremy Davis: Thank you.
    Shannon Westin: If it is okay with you, I'll call you Jeremy.
    Dr. Jeremy Davis: Yes, please. 
    Shannon Westin: Fabulous. We also have patient advocate Kathryn Carr, who is a board member for No Stomach for Cancer. Welcome, Kathryn.
    Kathryn Carr: Thank you so much. 
    Shannon Westin: So let's get right into it. I think this is really thought-provoking work. First, I'd love to level set. So this was work around hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome. Can we get a little bit of information about what causes this and how common it is?
    Dr. Jeremy Davis: So, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome, also referred to as the diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer syndrome, is basically early-onset diffuse gastric cancer and in women, lobular type breast cancer attributed to germline mutations in the CDH1 gene. If we look at all cases of gastric cancer in the United States, only about 1-3% may be considered hereditary in nature. But when we do study hereditary causes of cancer, it is by far the most common one that we are aware of.
    Shannon Westin: What is the likelihood that someone who is a carrier of a germline CDH1 variant will develop gastric cancer?
    Dr. Jeremy Davis: That's a good question. Early on, when the syndrome was first described, the estimates of cancer risk were quite high, probably upwards of 70-80%. The good news is that more current estimates published in the last few years suggest that that risk in a lifetime is probably in the 25-40% range. It’s interesting, we do have our own data that are under review right now, where in some families where there’s no history of stomach cancer, that risk of stomach cancer in a lifetime getting a CDH1 mutation might be as low as 10%. So I think the takeaway is that there’s clearly a spectrum and that spectrum of risk is probably based on factors that we don’t quite yet understand.
    Shannon Westin: What are the options for management of this hereditary syndrome, really focusing on the gastric cancer syndrome portion today? How good does it do to reduce the risk?
    Dr. Jeremy Davis: The options are really two. One is probably the prevailing recommendation that most people would be aware of, is to prophylactically remove the stomach, and we choose to use the term most often ‘risk-reducing gastrectomy’, but to remove the entire stomach and really eliminate the risk of cancer from ever developing. The other option is enhanced surveillance, and people might think of this as akin to other high risk cancer syndromes. But for this we would do yearly or annual endoscopic surveillance. Many people think that that may not be the best option, but it is certainly an option. We discussed some of that in the paper about what are the risks and benefits of gastrectomy, and then what may be the benefit of enhan

    • 23 min

Customer Reviews

3.7 out of 5
36 Ratings

36 Ratings

Jtn2 ,

Good Information, but

The information provided is important, but the presenters are stilted.

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Nice

Good platform

Zoirusha ,

I really want to like this podcast, but...

unfortunately, although the content is excellent, the delivery is awful. Most of the time the presenters just read the text of the podcast - very fast, in a monotonous voice. While as a written piece it could perhaps work, it doesn't work as an audio. I end up pausing and rewinding, and eventually giving up on learning and remembering. An audio lecture needs to be delivered at a slower pace, with fewer lists and numbers...

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