100 episodi

Each 15-minute podcast begins with an overview of the issue’s contents and main take-home messages for busy clinicians on the run. This is followed by a deep dive into a featured article of particular clinical significance: views will be heard from both author and editor teams for a “behind the scenes” look at the publication. Expect a fun, highly conversational and clinically-focused session each week!

Circulation on the Run Carolyn Lam, MBBS, PhD

    • Scienze biologiche

Each 15-minute podcast begins with an overview of the issue’s contents and main take-home messages for busy clinicians on the run. This is followed by a deep dive into a featured article of particular clinical significance: views will be heard from both author and editor teams for a “behind the scenes” look at the publication. Expect a fun, highly conversational and clinically-focused session each week!

    Circulation January 28, 2020 Issue

    Circulation January 28, 2020 Issue

    Dr Carolyn Lam: Welcome to Circulation On the Run, your weekly podcast summary and backstage pass to the journal and its editors. I'm Dr Carolyn Lam, Associate Editor from the National Heart Center and Duke National University of Singapore.
    Dr Greg Hundley: I'm Dr Greg Hundley, also Associate Editor, the Director of the Pauley Heart Center at VCU Health in Richmond, Virginia.
    Dr Carolyn Lam: Say, Greg, you know the feature paper this week talks about the perennially hot topic now and that is transcatheter aortic valve replacement or TAVR or TAVI. It's actually data from the France TAVI Registry comparing balloon expandable versus self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
    I'm sure you want to hear more about it, but first I'm going to tell you about another paper in the same issue, this time also comparing a balloon expandable versus a self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve implantation, but data from a nationwide analysis and from corresponding author Dr Fauchier from Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Trousseau. He and his colleagues basically did a head to head comparison of the two competing transcatheter aortic valve replacement technologies that have been published but have not really been followed for long-term clinical outcomes. This was comparing balloon expandable versus self-expanding technology.
    They collected information from more than 31,000 consecutive patients treated with Tavern in France between 2014 and 2018 and based this on the French administrative hospital discharge database. They did propensity score matching, which was used for the analysis of outcomes according to the Sapien 3 balloon expandable versus the Evolut R self-expanding TAVR technology and studied this as nationwide level in France.
    Dr Greg Hundley: Wow. Carolyn, 31,000 patients. That's a really large study. What did they find?
    Dr Carolyn Lam: They basically found that balloon expandable TAVR was associated with lower mortality rehospitalization heart failure and pacemaker implantation compared with the self-expanding TAVR. Now, that's of course a pretty big finding and this is discussed along with the feature paper that we're going to hear about in an editorial by Drs. Abdel-Wahab and Thiele from Heart Center Leipzig.
    I want to tell you about another paper before I let you tell you about yours, okay?
    Dr Greg Hundley: Sounds great, Carolyn.
    Dr Carolyn Lam: Greg, what is your clinical impression of Impella use in the United States among patients undergoing PCI? Do you think it's increasing or decreasing over time? As a reminder, Impella was approved for mechanical circulatory support in 2008, so from then, what do you think?
    Dr Greg Hundley: You know, Carolyn, I really think it's increasing, especially used more frequently rather than an intra-aortic balloon pump. How about you? What's going on in your area of the world?
    Dr Carolyn Lam: My impression too, but you know, you're lucky because we now have data looking at the trends in Impella use, but in the United States, and this comes from the corresponding author, Dr Amit Amin from Washington University School of Medicine and colleagues who describe clinical outcomes and costs across U.S. hospitals in PCI patients treated with mechanical circulatory support, which is either the Impella or the intra-aortic balloon pump.
    They found that among more than 48,300 real world patients undergoing PCI with mechanical circulatory support at 432 hospitals between 2004 and 2016 in the Premier Healthcare Database, Impella use was indeed found to be rapidly increasing with marked variability across hospitals and not only its use, but also in its associated adverse outcomes. When analyzed by time periods or at the level of the hospitals or at the level of the patients, Impella use was associated with higher rates of adverse events and higher hospital costs.
    Dr Greg Hundley: You kno

    • 23 min
    Circulation January 21, 2020 Issue

    Circulation January 21, 2020 Issue

    Dr. Carolyn Lam: Welcome to Circulation on the Run, your weekly podcast summary and backstage pass to the journal and its editors. I'm Carolyn Lam, Associate Editor from National Heart Center at Duke National University of Singapore.
    Dr. Greg Hundley: And I'm Greg Hundley, Associate Editor, Director of the Pauley Heart Center in Richmond, Virginia.
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: Greg, it is so good to be back. I just love doing these podcasts with you and what more when we get to feature a paper like the one that we have this week. It's all about high sensitivity, cardiac troponin and the universal definition of myocardial infarction, one of these evergreen topics that we truly need to understand better. But before we go onto that, I want to share my first paper. It's a preclinical paper and it provides an important breakthrough discovery that could protect the heart against progressive left ventricular systolic dysfunction following injury. Want to hear about it?
    Dr. Greg Hundley: Absolutely.
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: Okay. It's from course wanting authors, Drs Sabourin and Benitah from INSERM University, Paris, as well as Doctors Foster and Beech from University of Leeds.
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: Now, whereas store operated calcium entry has recently gained attention in cardiac pathophysiology, the role of the prototypic store operated channel known as Orai1 remains elusive. So these authors used a novel genetically modified mouse that specifically disrupts the Orai1 channel in cardiomyocytes and showed that functional inhibition of Orai1 preserved alterations of calcium homeostasis, fibrosis and systolic function without affecting hypertrophy. A novel in vivo small molecule Orai1 channel inhibitor, in fact, markedly improve left ventricular systolic function and calcium handling after pressure overload without causing adverse effects.
    Dr. Greg Hundley: Tell me, how does this help me as a clinician?
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: All right, you always ask the tough questions. Well, these results really suggest that Orai1 inhibition has the potential for favorable hemodynamic value in the protection of the heart from maladaptive hypotrophy, and therefore might represent a new way to provide inotropic support to help relieve systolic dysfunction.
    Dr. Greg Hundley: Very good. Well Carolyn, my first paper is from Dr Peter Kudenchuk from University of Washington Medical Center and this study evaluates the overall survivor after out of hospital cardiac arrest from shock refractory ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia related to the route of accessory drug administration. So to accomplish this, the investigators had 2,358 individuals that had received Amiodarone, lidocaine or placebo study drugs and randomized to an IV route.
    Dr. Greg Hundley: And then they also included 661 patients that received the same medications, but they were randomized to an intraosseous route.
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: So what were the results, Greg?
    Dr. Greg Hundley: Well, Carolyn, while no significant effect modification by drug administration route was observed point estimates for the effects of both drugs, both the lidocaine and the Amiodarone, compared to placebo were greater for the IV, as opposed to the intraosseous route and that was across all outcomes. And they had significant increases in survival to hospital admission and discharge and favored improved neurological outcomes with the IV administration.
    Dr. Greg Hundley: Unfortunately, however, the study was underpowered to examine for an interaction between the route of vascular access and drug effectiveness and thus additional studies are needed to determine whether Amiodarone in lidocaine may be lifesaving drugs in patients with shock refractory out of hospital cardiac arrest when given IV, but not necessarily intraosseous.
    Dr. Carolyn Lam: Very interesting. Well, my next paper is really focused on HIV infec

    • 21 min
    Circulation January 14, 2020 Issue

    Circulation January 14, 2020 Issue

    Dr Greg Hundley: Welcome listeners. This is Dr Greg Hundley from the VCU Pauley Heart Center in Richmond, who is in the second of his two-week stint without his dear friend, Dr Carolyn Lam who will be returning in a week or two. Our feature article this week is from Dr Mikhail Kosiborod from Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute and the Georgia Institute for Global Health, and University of New South Wales. And we'll review the effects of dapagliflozin on quality of life and other metrics in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. But first, let's have a look at the other articles in this issue and just like last week we've got four other original manuscripts. The first two are sort of clinically related and that very first article comes from Dr Ben Levine from University of Texas Southwestern and he serves as the corresponding author and he's examining future predictors of the development of heart failure and preserved ejection fraction or HFpEF.
    His team tested the hypothesis as to whether patients with LVH and elevated cardiac biomarkers would demonstrate elevated LV myocardial stiffness when compared to healthy controls as a key marker for future HFpEF. The team recruited 46 patients with LVH. The LV septum was greater than 11 millimeters and elevated cardiac biomarkers, so the NTproBNP was greater than 40 or the cardiac troponin T was greater than 0.6. And they were recruited along with 61 age and sex-matched cohort of healthy controls. To define LV pressure volume relationships, right heart catheterization and 3D echocardiography were performed while preload was manipulated using lower body negative pressure and rapid saline infusion. They found that the left ventricle was less distensible in the LVH patients relative to the controls, that is they had a smaller volume for the same filling pressure. When preload was expressed as transmural filling pressure or wedge pressure minus right atrial pressure left ventricular myocardial stiffness was nearly 30% greater in the LVH group compared to the controls.
    The author's note that although LV myocardial stiffness of LVH patients was greater than that of the healthy controls at this relatively early stage, further studies are required to clarify whether interventions such as exercise training to improve LV compliance may prevent the full manifestation of the HFpEF syndrome in these high-risk individuals.
    Well, the second paper comes from Professor John McMurry of the British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Center at the University of Glasgow in the United Kingdom. And the paper is somewhat similar to our feature article because it emanates from the DAPA Heart Failure dataset that we will hear about later. So in this paper, the authors examined the effects of Dapagliflozin according to age, given potential concerns about the efficacy and safety of therapies in the elderly in the prior trial. A clinical trial that as we know, demonstrated that a reduced risk of mortality and heart failure hospitalizations occurred in patients with HFrEF.
    So in this current study, a total of 4,744 patients that were 22 to 94 years of age were randomized. 636 were less than 55 years of age, 1,242 we're 55 to 64 years of age 1,717 were 65 to 74, and finally 1,149 were greater than 75 years of age. Consistent benefits were observed for the components of the primary outcome of all-cause mortality and symptoms across all the age groups. Although the adverse events and the study drug discontinuation increased with age, neither was significantly more common with Dapagliflozin across any of the age groups. There was no significant imbalance and tolerability or safety events between Dapagliflozin and placebo, even in the very old population group. So we'll have more to discuss later in the feature discussion with a second paper that really looks also at the DAPA-HF study

    • 24 min
    Circulation January 7, 2020 Issue

    Circulation January 7, 2020 Issue

    Dr Greg Hundley: Well listeners, this is Dr Greg Hundley from the VCU Pauley Heart Center in Richmond this week, who is sadly missing his dear friend, Dr Carolyn Lam, who is away for just a week or two. I hope you've experienced a wonderful holiday season and are able to embrace the new year with joy and hope.
    In our feature article this week, Dr Marcelo Di Carli and colleagues are going to discuss the role of coronary microvascular dysfunction assessed with cardiac stress during PET, as well as left ventricular remodeling assessed with echocardiography and how both of those relate to clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney impairment. But first, let's have a coffee and chat about other articles in this issue.
    We have four original manuscripts, two or more clinical papers, and two from the world of basic science. So let's go to the clinical papers first. And the first emanates from our own associate editor, Dr Sana Al-Khatib from Duke University. Her paper comes from the ARISTOTLE trial, a randomized study of 18,201 participants that compared apixaban with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation at increased risk of stroke. And so this sub study included 17,423 patients in ARISTOTLE without severe renal or liver disease. And the authors evaluated the risk of bleeding and major cardiovascular outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation taking either NSAIDs with therapixaban or warfarin. The authors found that those with NSAID use at baseline, so before starting into the study or incident NSAID use, that is they began an NSAID after initiating this study were more likely, both groups were more likely to have a history of bleeding, nearly a quarter of the patients to a fifth of the patients versus only 15% that had never used NSAIDs either before or after entering the study.
    In addition, the safety and efficacy of apixaban versus warfarin appeared not to significantly be altered by NSAID use. That is whether you were taking apixaban or whether you're taking warfarin, the impact of NSAID use was not different between either of those anticoagulants.
    The second original clinical article comes from Dr Audrey Blewer, also from Duke University, and evaluates the variation in bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation delivery and subsequent survival from out of hospital cardiac arrest based on neighborhood level ethnic characteristics.
    As background for this research, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation delivery and survival from out of hospital cardiac arrest varies at the neighborhood level, was generally lower survival seen in neighborhoods predominantly with individuals from black race. Despite Hispanics being the fastest growing minority population in the United States, few studies have assessed whether the proportion of Hispanics in a neighborhood is also associated with delivery of bystander CPR or subsequent survival for an out of hospital cardiac arrest. Accordingly, the authors in this study assessed whether bystander CPR rates and survival buried by neighborhood level ethnicity. And they hypothesized that neighborhoods with a higher proportion of Hispanics would have lower bystander CPR rates and overall lower survival.
    This study was a retrospective cohort and use data from the Resuscitations Outcome Consortium, or ROC Epistry across the United States. So in this study, the authors identified 18,900 cardiac arrests. And they excluded pediatric arrests, EMS witnessed arrests, or arrest occurring in a healthcare or an institutional facility. And they found overall that bystander CPR was administered in 37% of these out-of-hospital arrests. Among neighborhoods with less than 25% Hispanic residents, bystander CPR was administered in 39% of the events, while it was administered in only 27% of the events in those neighborhoods with greater than 75% Hispanic residents. Also, lower rates of survival occurr

    • 23 min
    Circulation on the Run and Discover CircRes Dual Podcast with Dr Joseph Hill, Dr. Jane Freedman, and Dr. Amit Khera

    Circulation on the Run and Discover CircRes Dual Podcast with Dr Joseph Hill, Dr. Jane Freedman, and Dr. Amit Khera

    Dr Amit Khera: I'm Amit Khera, I'm digital strategies editor for Circulation and I'm standing in this week for Carolyn Lam and Greg Hunley. And I'm also doing the Circulation on the Run podcast, as well as Discover CircRes podcast with our two editors in chief.
    This is Jane Freedman, who recently took over as editor-in-chief of Circulation Research, and Joseph Hill, who is the editor-in-chief of Circulation. So, welcome you both. We're excited to do this.
    Dr Joseph Hill: Thank you.
    Dr Jane Freedman: Thank you.
    Dr Amit Khera: The idea behind this, there's this session here at sessions where we're learning a little bit about Circulation Research and Circulation, pulling back the cover, if you will, and seeing behind the cloak, as what happens in the Journal. So, Dr Freedman, I'll start with you. Tell me a little bit about, as the incoming editor of Circulation Research, some of your vision for the Journal, which you're excited about.
    Dr Jane Freedman: Mm-hmm (affirmative). Well, I'm thrilled to be the new editor of Circulation Research. And I've assembled a fabulous team of associate editors, deputy editors and other staff and support, that are going to continue to grow what's already a wonderful journal, to be the preeminent and primary journal for basic and translational cardiovascular sciences. And also support and interact with the other HA family of Journals.
    Dr Amit Khera: So obviously that starts with a great team. And it sounds like you've assembled that. Anything new that you're thinking about, and sort of the redesign of Circ Research in your term?
    Dr Jane Freedman: Sure. So, we're hoping to expand the original scientific content, so we can have a larger number of articles in original science. And we can have the pages to be able to handle other areas of basic cardiovascular science to include new areas, emerging areas, things like that. We're also increasing some of our early career initiatives, so that's very important to us as well.
    Dr Amit Khera: Fantastic. Fantastic. Can you talk about expanding for science? And Joe, that leads to you. I'm going to, in this session tomorrow, one of the goals is when people submit their science, it really goes into a black box and people don't know what happens on the editorial level. Can you maybe enlighten us a little, what happened?
    Dr Joseph Hill: Jane and I have been friends for 20 or more years and we now have established a bi-directional, mutually synergistic collaboration where we send papers each way. We have distinct missions, but yet with significant overlap. And I think it's an incredibly exciting time for the entire portfolio of AHA Journals. So as you
    say, most people that you hit send and you wait four to six weeks, and you
    either get a happy note or an unhappy note.
    And, what happens at both our Journals is we have a strategy of multiple
    touches on every paper. The paper that first comes in, is first touched by a
    senior editor, either myself or James de Lemos, and two or three others. And we
    will reject without review, about 50% of the papers at that point. We publish six
    papers a week, but we get 110 a week. So we don't need to review 50 of them
    to pick the top six.
    Out of respect to our authors to save them time, out of respect to our reviewers
    who devote tremendous effort to reviewing papers, we don't send them papers
    that we don't think have a shot. That said, if a paper makes it past that first
    stage, there's about a 50% chance it'll get published either in our Journal, or in
    one of the subspecialty journals. Probably a 50-50 chance it'll be published
    somewhere in an AHA family Journal.
    So if it makes it past that stage, we send it to an associate editor, of which you
    are one. And we have about 50 of them. A third are in Dallas, another third are
    in the U.S. outside of Dallas, and another third are in countries around the
    world, 17 d

    • 9 min
    Circulation December 17, 2019 Issue

    Circulation December 17, 2019 Issue

    Dr Carolyn Lam: Welcome to Circulation on the Run, your weekly podcast summary and backstage pass to the journal and it's editors. I'm Dr Carolyn Lam, Associate Editor from the National Heart center and Duke National University of Singapore.
    Dr Greg Hundley: And I'm associate editor, Dr Greg Hundley, from VCU Health, the Pauley Heart Center, in Richmond, Virginia.
    Well Carolyn, our feature discussion, are results from the Odyssey study and they're presented by Professor Wouter Jukema from Leiden University Medical Center, regarding the relationship between ultra-low LDL levels in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The study really seeks to answer the question related to concerns that ultra-low LDL levels, less than 15 milligrams per deciliter, in patients treated for ischemic heart disease could increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke, but more to come on that intriguing question. Carolyn, how about your first paper?
    Dr Carolyn Lam: It's from doctors Condorelli and Kallikourdis from Humanitas Clinical and Research Center and Institute of Genetic and Biomedical Research respectively in Rozzano Milan in Italy. Now, these authors used single cell RNA sequencing to map the cardiac immune composition in the standard Murine non ischemic pressure overload heart failure model. They then integrated their findings using multi parameter flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and tissue clarification immunofluorescence in both the mouse and the human. And they found that despite the absence of infectious agents or an autoimmune trigger, induction of disease led to immune activation that involved far more cell types than previously thought. And that included neutrophils, B cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells. And this really opens up the field of cardio immunology to further investigation using toolkits that have already been developed to study these immune subsets.
    Dr Greg Hundley: Ah, so Carolyn, do they have any specific examples?
    Dr Carolyn Lam: Hmm, indeed they did. They found that activation lead to up regulation of key subset specific molecules such as pro inflammatory cytokine onco statin M in pro-inflammatory macrophages, and PD1 in T regulatory cells. Now these are significant because they may help to explain clinical findings such as the refractivity of heart failure patients to anti TNF therapy and cardio toxicity during anti PD1 cancer immunotherapy respectively, for the more these subset specific molecules may become useful targets for the diagnosis or therapy of heart failure.
    Dr Greg Hundley: Oh, beautiful. Well Carolyn, my next article is from Ambarish Pandey from University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and it's entitled Incorporation of Biomarkers into Risk Assessment for Allocation of any Hypertensive Medication, According to the 2017 ACC, AHA High Blood Pressure Guidelines, a Pooled Cohort Analysis.
    Dr Carolyn Lam: So I suppose asking does consideration of troponin or BNP inform cardiovascular risk in those with hypertension?
    Dr Greg Hundley: Great question Carolyn. So in this study, the authors included participant level data from 12,987 participants across three cohort studies, ERIC, the Dallas Heart Study and MESA. And they were pooled excluding individuals with prevalent cardiovascular disease and those taking antihypertension medications at baseline. Participants were analyzed according to blood pressure treatment group from the 2017 ACC AHA Blood Pressure Guideline and those with high blood pressure, 120 to 159 millimeters of mercury, were further stratified by biomarker status.
    Dr Carolyn Lam: Okay. So what did they find Greg?
    Dr Greg Hundley: Participants with elevated blood pressure or hypertension, not recommended for any hypertensive medication with versus without either elevated high sensitivity, cardiac troponin T or N terminal pro BNP, had a 10-year cardiovascular incidence rate

    • 20 min

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