29 min

Journal Club: Nexus C-spine EMRA*Cast

    • Science

Host: Alex Kaminsky MD: PGY-3 UCSF Fresno
Guest: Jerry Hoffman MD: Professor Emeritus UCLA
Deputy Editor/Contributor: Mat Goebel MD: PGY-1 Baystate
Overview: 
In this inaugural Journal Club episode, we discuss the over-utilization of cervical spine imaging in traumatic patients via landmark papers from the NEXUS group. 
X-radiography of the C-spine has been widely replaced by CT-radiography, but the principles remain the same. Patient with low mechanism injuries are often over-irradiated due to physician fears of a statistically small percentage of true clinically significant C-spine injuries. Physicians often neglect to recognize the number needed to harm during diagnostic studies. This is particularly important in C-spine imaging as the anatomic target is directly adjacent to the radiosensitive thyroid gland.
With the Assistance of Dr. Hoffman (Primary Author), we will delve into the overall study with some advanced pearls.
Key Resources:
Initial Paper: Hoffman JR, Wolfson AB, Todd KH, Mower WR. Selective cervical spine radiography in blunt trauma: methodology of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS). Ann Emerg Med 1998;32:461-469. PMID:9774931 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9774931 Hoffman JR, , Mower WR, Todd KH. Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(2):94-1. PMID: 10891516  https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJM200007133430203?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
 
https://www.mdcalc.com/nexus-criteria-c-spine-imaging#evidence  
Key Points:
 
NEXUS C-Spine is an INSTRUMENT designed to augment clinical judgement. It was designed to support common-sense practices.  
Criteria – 99.6% Sensitive (If all negative, reassured no significant fracture) 
 
No Focal Neurologic Deficit No Altered Consciousness No Intoxication – Requires Judgement (common sense) No Distracting Injury – Requires Judgement (common sense) Is a finger fracture? Is a corneal ulceration? No Midline Tenderness  
Study Highlights:
>34,000 Patients over 21 hospitals in 4 geographic US regions
>800 true positive C-spine injuries identified
Sensitivity reported at 99.6%
Two clinically significant “misses” identified
 
One likely chronic injury. No change in outcome at follow-up. Patient asymptomatic. One patient underwent surgical intervention Of note authors suggest patient actually did not meet NEXUS criteria as he had paresthesias  
NEXUS C-spine: Overall 12.6% reduction in C-spine imaging

Host: Alex Kaminsky MD: PGY-3 UCSF Fresno
Guest: Jerry Hoffman MD: Professor Emeritus UCLA
Deputy Editor/Contributor: Mat Goebel MD: PGY-1 Baystate
Overview: 
In this inaugural Journal Club episode, we discuss the over-utilization of cervical spine imaging in traumatic patients via landmark papers from the NEXUS group. 
X-radiography of the C-spine has been widely replaced by CT-radiography, but the principles remain the same. Patient with low mechanism injuries are often over-irradiated due to physician fears of a statistically small percentage of true clinically significant C-spine injuries. Physicians often neglect to recognize the number needed to harm during diagnostic studies. This is particularly important in C-spine imaging as the anatomic target is directly adjacent to the radiosensitive thyroid gland.
With the Assistance of Dr. Hoffman (Primary Author), we will delve into the overall study with some advanced pearls.
Key Resources:
Initial Paper: Hoffman JR, Wolfson AB, Todd KH, Mower WR. Selective cervical spine radiography in blunt trauma: methodology of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS). Ann Emerg Med 1998;32:461-469. PMID:9774931 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9774931 Hoffman JR, , Mower WR, Todd KH. Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(2):94-1. PMID: 10891516  https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJM200007133430203?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
 
https://www.mdcalc.com/nexus-criteria-c-spine-imaging#evidence  
Key Points:
 
NEXUS C-Spine is an INSTRUMENT designed to augment clinical judgement. It was designed to support common-sense practices.  
Criteria – 99.6% Sensitive (If all negative, reassured no significant fracture) 
 
No Focal Neurologic Deficit No Altered Consciousness No Intoxication – Requires Judgement (common sense) No Distracting Injury – Requires Judgement (common sense) Is a finger fracture? Is a corneal ulceration? No Midline Tenderness  
Study Highlights:
>34,000 Patients over 21 hospitals in 4 geographic US regions
>800 true positive C-spine injuries identified
Sensitivity reported at 99.6%
Two clinically significant “misses” identified
 
One likely chronic injury. No change in outcome at follow-up. Patient asymptomatic. One patient underwent surgical intervention Of note authors suggest patient actually did not meet NEXUS criteria as he had paresthesias  
NEXUS C-spine: Overall 12.6% reduction in C-spine imaging

29 min

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