134 episodes

PEM Currents: The Pediatric Emergency Medicine Podcast is an evidence-based podcast focused on the care of ill and injured children in the Emergency Department. The host is Brad Sobolewski, author of PEMBlog.com and a Professor of Pediatric Emergency Medicine at Cincinnati Children's and the University of Cincinnati.

PEM Currents: The Pediatric Emergency Medicine Podcast Brad Sobolewski

    • Health & Fitness
    • 4.5 • 74 Ratings

PEM Currents: The Pediatric Emergency Medicine Podcast is an evidence-based podcast focused on the care of ill and injured children in the Emergency Department. The host is Brad Sobolewski, author of PEMBlog.com and a Professor of Pediatric Emergency Medicine at Cincinnati Children's and the University of Cincinnati.

    Syphilis

    Syphilis

    Syphilis has gone by many nicknames over the years including “The Great Pretender” and “The Great Imitator.” Emily Labudde, MD, a Pediatric Emergency Medicine fellow at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta and recent pediatric residency graduate from Cincinnati Children’s discusses the various manifestations of this sexually transmitted infection, and how we can’t miss this very treatable, but sneaky malady.







    PEMBlog







    @PEMTweets on… sigh “X” (Twitter)







    My Instagram







    My Mastodon account @bradsobo







    References







    Emily J. Labudde, Jane Lee; A Review of Syphilis Infection in Pediatric Patients. Pediatr Rev. July 2024; 45 (7): 373–380. https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.2023-006309







    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2021.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/statistics/2021/default.htm.







    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines 2021.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/syphilis.htm.







    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm.







    Transcript







    Note: This transcript was partially completed with the use of the Descript AI







    Welcome to PEMCurrents, the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Podcast, as always, I’m your host Brad Sobolewski. Today’s episode is all about the great pretender, syphilis. And let’s face it, it’s not just a disease for Medieval royalty. It’s on the rise in the United States and abroad. So let’s talk about the manifestations and management.







    And I’ve got a special guest host. This is Emily Labudde, originally from Detroit, at the time of recording this episode, a third year categorical pediatric resident at Cincinnati Children’s and a soon to be pediatric emergency medicine fellow in Atlanta. I’m going to pass the mic to you, Emily. My name is Emily Labudde, and I’m a third year pediatric resident at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, and I’ll be starting fellowship in pediatric emergency medicine this summer at Emory University Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta.







    Today’s podcast is going to cover acquired syphilis infection. Now, I know what you’re thinking. We don’t see a lot of syphilis in the pediatric ED. That’s what I thought, too, until I saw it, and with syphilis on the rise, it’s likely we’ll start to see more. I recently published a review article on syphilis in Pediatrics in Review, which you should check out.







    It is far more detailed and also covers congenital syphilis, which is beyond the scope of this episode. At the end of this podcast,

    • 9 min
    Cervical Spine Injuries

    Cervical Spine Injuries

    Cervical Spine Injuries are fortunately rare in children. this episode is all about learning when to suspect them, how to immobilize the C-spine properly, and which imaging test to choose. It was inspired by a hot-off-the-presses publication from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) focused on clinical decision rules for cervical spine imaging in children.







    Check out the paper by Leonard et al. entitled “PECARN prediction rule for cervical spine imaging of children presenting to the emergency department with blunt trauma: a multicentre prospective observational study” at Lancet Child & Adolescent Health from Leonard et al here!















    Maybe there’s a funky music video that will teach you how to clear the C-spine?























    PEMBlog







    @PEMTweets on… sigh “X” (Twitter)







    My Instagram







    My Mastodon account @bradsobo







    References







    Leonard, J. C., Harding, M., Cook, L. J., Leonard, J. R., Adelgais, K. M., Ahmad, F. A., Browne, L. R., Burger, R. K., Chaudhari, P., Corwin, D. J., Glomb, N. W., Lee, L. K., Owusu-Ansah, S., Riney, L. C., Rogers, A. J., Rubalcava, D. M., Sapien, R. E., Szadkowski, M. A., Tzimenatos, L., Ward, C. E., Yen, K., Kuppermann, N. (2024). PECARN prediction rule for cervical spine imaging of children presenting to the emergency department with blunt trauma: a multicentre prospective observational study. Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(24)00104-4.







    Sasser SM, Hunt RC, Faul M, Sugerman D, Pearson WS, Dulski T, Wald MM, Jurkovich GJ, Newgard CD, Lerner EB; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Guidelines for field triage of injured patients: recommendations of the National Expert Panel on Field Triage, 2011. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2012 Jan 13;61(RR-1):1-20. PMID: 22237112.







    Leonard JR, Jaffe DM, Kuppermann N, Olsen CS, Leonard JC; Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Cervical Spine Study Group. Cervical spine injury patterns in children. Pediatrics. 2014 May;133(5):e1179-88. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3505. PMID: 24777222; PMCID: PMC9923608.







    Baker C, Kadish H, Schunk JE. Evaluation of pediatric cervical spine injuries. Am J Emerg Med. 1999 May;17(3):230-4. doi: 10.1016/s0735-6757(99)90111-0. PMID: 10337876.







    Leonard JC, Browne LR, Ahmad FA, Schwartz H, Wallendorf M, Leonard JR, Lerner EB, Kuppermann N. Cervical Spine Injury Risk Factors in Children With Blunt Trauma. Pediatrics. 2019 Jul;144(1):e20183221. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-3221.

    Febrile Seizures

    Febrile Seizures

    Febrile Seizures are among the most common neurological problema in young children, occurring in 1 out of 50 children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years of age. This episode of PEM Currents: The Pediatric Emergency Medicine Podcast is a Question and Answer style exploration of some of the most common learning points in this incredibly important topic.







    PEMBlog







    @PEMTweets on… sigh “X” (Twitter)







    My Instagram







    My Mastodon account @bradsobo







    References







    Xixis KL, Samanta D, Smith T, et al. Febrile Seizure. [Updated 2024 Jan 19]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448123/







    Feenstra B, Pasternak B, Geller F, et al. Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine-related febrile seizures. Nat Genet 2014; 46:1274.







    Mullan PC, Levasseur KA, Bajaj L, Nypaver M, Chamberlain JM, Thull-Freedman J, Ostrow O, Jain S. Recommendations for Choosing Wisely in Pediatric Emergency Medicine: Five Opportunities to Improve Value. Ann Emerg Med. 2024 Feb 11:S0196-0644(24)00017-9. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2024.01.007. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38349290.







    Guedj R, Chappuy H, Titomanlio L, De Pontual L, Biscardi S, Nissack-Obiketeki G, Pellegrino B, Charara O, Angoulvant F, Denis J, Levy C, Cohen R, Loschi S, Leger PL, Carbajal R. Do All Children Who Present With a Complex Febrile Seizure Need a Lumbar Puncture? Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Jul;70(1):52-62.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.11.024. Epub 2017 Mar 2. PMID: 28259480.







    Shinnar S, Hesdorffer DC, Nordli DR Jr, Pellock JM, O’Dell C, Lewis DV, Frank LM, Moshé SL, Epstein LG, Marmarou A, Bagiella E; FEBSTAT Study Team. Phenomenology of prolonged febrile seizures: results of the FEBSTAT study. Neurology. 2008 Jul 15;71(3):170-6. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000310774.01185.97. Epub 2008 Jun 4. PMID: 18525033.







    Murata S, Okasora K, Tanabe T, Ogino M, Yamazaki S, Oba C, Syabana K, Nomura S, Shirasu A, Inoue K, Kashiwagi M, Tamai H. Acetaminophen and Febrile Seizure Recurrences During the Same Fever Episode. Pediatrics. 2018 Nov;142(5):e20181009. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-1009. Epub 2018 Oct 8. PMID: 30297499.







    Transcript







    Note: This transcript was partially completed with the use of the Descript AI







    Welcome to PEMCurrents, the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Podcast. As always, I’m your host, Brad Sobolewski. This episode is all about febrile seizures, one of the most common neurological problems that you will see in the emergency department in children. And you know what? I’m going to structure this episode like a bit of a question and answer session.







    I’ll ask a question, and then I’ll answer it. So the first and perhaps most important question is, What are febrile seizures and how common are they? Well, they are the most common neurologic disorder of infants and young children, and they happen in about 2 to 4 percent of children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years of age.







    I’ll tell parents that they happen in about 1 out of 50 kids. It’s associated with fever, but in a child without evidence of intracranial infection. They are not considered a form of epilepsy. They peak between 12 and 18 months of age,

    • 27 min
    Metabolic Disorders

    Metabolic Disorders

    This episode will help you better prepare for and manage children with inborn errors of metabolism in the Emergency Department. Consider it a supplement to what you remember from Biochemistry and the instructions on the family’s laminated care plan sheet. My special guest podcaster, Emily Groopman, is an actual Pediatric Geneticist in training and we hope that you will find this episode useful.







    PEMBlog







    @PEMTweets on… sigh “X” (Twitter)







    My Instagram







    My Mastodon account @bradsobo







    Emily Groopman, MD, PhD







    Emily Groopman, MD, PhD is a first-year resident in the Combined Pediatrics-Medical Genetics Residency Program at Children’s National Hospital/NIH. She did her MD/PhD at Columbia University, where she investigated the diagnostic utility of exome sequencing for kidney disease. She is a member of the Clinical Genome Resource Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEM) Clinical Domain Working Group, where as a biocurator she assesses the pathogenicity of variants in IEM-associated genes to facilitate expedited genetic diagnosis for IEMs. She aims to become a physician-scientist in pediatrics and medical genetics, engaging in bench-to-bedside research that utilizes multi-omics-based approaches to provide a molecular diagnosis and support personalized care for individuals with suspected rare genetic diseases and their families. You can contact her via email at egroopman@childrensnational.org.







    References







    Jeanmonod R, Asuka E, Jeanmonod D. Inborn Errors of Metabolism. [Updated 2023 Jul 17]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459183/#







    Rice GM, Steiner RD. Inborn Errors of Metabolism (Metabolic Disorders). Pediatr Rev. 2016 Jan;37(1):3-15; quiz 16-7, 47. doi: 10.1542/pir.2014-0122. PMID: 26729777.







    Burton BK. Inborn errors of metabolism in infancy: a guide to diagnosis. Pediatrics. 1998 Dec;102(6):E69. doi: 10.1542/peds.102.6.e69. PMID: 9832597.







    Transcript







    Note: This transcript was partially completed with the use of the Descript AI







    Welcome to PEM Currents, the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Podcast. As always, I’m your host, Brad Sobolewski, and this episode focuses on the management of children with metabolic disorders who present to the emergency department. I know that this is a subject that makes us all a little bit nervous, and you’re just hoping that the parents have a good laminated sheet to tell you everything that you need to do.







    Unfortunately, that’s not always the case. And, let’s face it, there are some great principles that you can apply across metabolic diseases to make sure that you are safely taking care of these children. And you’re thinking, hey! Brad’s not a pediatric medical geneticist. No, I’m not. So I called in a ringer.







    Or, well, the ringer called me. So my special guest host on this episode is a trainee in pediatrics and medical genetics. Her name is Emily Groopman, and she’s a current resident at Children’s National Hospital. After doing her MD PhD at Columbia University, where she investigated the genetic diagnosis of kidney disease, she started her residency training with the long term goal of being a physician scientist caring ...

    • 16 min
    Vitamin K Deficient Bleeding (Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn)

    Vitamin K Deficient Bleeding (Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn)

    Newborn infants need intramuscular injections of Vitamin K in order to produce critical clotting factors. If they don’t get it they can have potentially life threatening bleeding.







    PEMBlog







    @PEMTweets on… sigh “X” (Twitter)







    My Instagram







    My Mastodon account @bradsobo







    References









    * American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn.  Controversies Concerning Vitamin K and the Newborn.  Pediatrics 2003 July; 112(1):191-2.







    * Ross, JA, Davies SM. Vitamin K prophylaxis and childhood cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2000 Jun;34(6):434-7.







    * Cornelissen, M., et al.  Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding: efficacy of different multiple oral dose schedules of vitamin K.  Eur J Pediatr.  1997 Feb; 156(2):126-30.







    * Greer, FR, et al. Improving the vitamin K status of breastfeeding infants with maternal vitamin K supplements. Pediatr. 1997 Jan;99(1).







    * Kher P, Verma RP. Hemorrhagic Disease of Newborn. [Updated 2023 Jun 26]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK558994/#









    Transcript







    Note: This transcript was partially completed with the use of the Descript AI







    Welcome to PEM Currents, the pediatric emergency medicine podcast. As always, I’m your host, Brad Sobolewski. Today, we’re gonna talk about vitamin k deficient bleeding, also known as hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. This is a bleeding disorder that manifests in the first few days to weeks of life after delivery. Under the umbrella are a whole range of hemorrhagic diseases, but the most important is vitamin k deficient bleeding.







    I’ll get into why in a moment. Vitamin k itself is a fat soluble vitamin mainly synthesized by gut bacteria. Newborns have minimal vitamin k reserves in a sterile gut. And there’s insufficient placental transfer and breast milk is deficient in vitamin K, so that’s why infants need vitamin K at birth. Without it, they can’t produce clotting factors 2, 7, 9, and 10.







    You need all those. In brand newborns, the levels are about 20 percent or less of adult values, but within a month after birth, they arise to within normal limits. Other causes of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn include hereditary clotting factor deficiencies such as hemophilia A or B. And the most common item on the differential, especially for late onset, which we’ll talk about in a moment, is trauma, non accidental or accidental trauma. So why am I covering this topic?







    Well, a lot of people out there are actually refusing vitamin k for their newborns. Why? Well, families state that they have concerns about the preservative in the injection, maybe that it could cause autism. It doesn’t. The pain from the injection could be harmful to the infant.







    They perceive that the intramuscular vitamin k is a vaccine. It’s not. The dose of intramuscular vitamin K is too high. It isn’t. A potential for adverse reactions to an injection like anaphylaxis.







    Anaphylaxis can happen after IV infusion and it&#821...

    • 13 min
    Cellulitis

    Cellulitis

    This episode will help you recognize cellulitis and even differentiate it from erysipelas which is totally a different thing. You’ll also learn about treatment, whether or not a blood culture is necessary, and a whole lot more.







    PEMBlog







    @PEMTweets on… sigh “X” (Twitter)







    My Instagram







    My Mastodon account @bradsobo







    References







    Chen AE, Carroll KC, Diener-West M, Ross T, Ordun J, Goldstein MA, Kulkarni G, Cantey JB, Siberry GK. Randomized controlled trial of cephalexin versus clindamycin for uncomplicated pediatric skin infections. Pediatrics. 2011 Mar;127(3):e573-80. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2053. Epub 2011 Feb 21. PMID: 21339275; PMCID: PMC3387913.







    Daniel J. Pallin, William D. Binder, Matthew B. Allen, Molly Lederman, Siddharth Parmar, Michael R. Filbin, David C. Hooper, Carlos A. Camargo, Clinical Trial: Comparative Effectiveness of Cephalexin Plus Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Versus Cephalexin Alone for Treatment of Uncomplicated Cellulitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 56, Issue 12, 15 June 2013, Pages 1754–1762, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit122







    Liu C, Bayer A, Cosgrove SE, et al. Clinical practice guidelines by the infectious diseases society of america for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52:e18.







    Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 59:e10.







    Transcript







    Note: This transcript was partially completed with the use of the Descript AI







     Welcome to another episode of PEM Currents, the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Podcast. As always, I’m your host, Brad Sobolewski, and today’s episode is all about cellulitis. What is it? Well when a break in the skin occurs, normal skin, flora, and bacteria can enter the subcutaneous tissue, where they do not belong, and they can also invade the lymphatic system.







    And although this podcast episode is entitled cellulitis, I’m also going to talk about erysipelas. The two terms are not interchangeable. but both manifest as areas of skin, erythema, edema, and warmth. Cellulitis involves the deeper dermis and subcutaneous fat. Whereas erysipelas involves the upper dermis and there’s a more clear demarcation between the involved and uninvolved tissue.







    There’s a fun fact, since the ear doesn’t have deep or dermal tissue, it’s always. ear-a-sipelas. I’ll pause for laughter. Anyway, a skin abscess, which is not the focus of this episode, is a collection of pus deep within the dermis or subcutaneous space. Impetigo, also not included in this episode, is a very superficial infection with that honey crusted drainage. There are also bullous versions. So cellulitis tends to develop in a bit more of an indolent fashion over a few to several days, whereas erys syphilis is more acute. You get systemic symptoms faster, such as fever. Chills, severe malaise, and headache. These can precede the onset of the local skin changes and start just in a matter of hours.







    Clinically, for both, you’ll see areas of skin erythema. edema and warmth.

    • 14 min

Customer Reviews

4.5 out of 5
74 Ratings

74 Ratings

bettylloyd ,

Great job!

I am so grateful for physicians and podcasts like this one! I have practiced for many years and love to be guided by trustworthy and benevolent providers like Brad. Thanks for your hard work… it is making a difference in the world!

Kool Aid 1621 ,

Fantastic podcast

Great balance of important information in scientific manner as well as key points to remember to assess patients quickly and efficiently. One of best Peds podcasts out there!

Dan939393 ,

Fantastic

Thankful for this service! As a peds resident, this podcast is invaluable. Thanks Brad!

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