54 episodes

Welcome to the End of Tourism, a podcast about wanderlust, exile, and radical hospitality. For some, tourism can entail learning, freedom, and financial survival. For others, it means the loss of culture, land, and lineage. Our conversations explore the unauthorized histories and consequences of modern travel. They are dispatches from the resistance. Hosted by Chris Christou.


The End of Tourism Chris Christou

    • Society & Culture
    • 4.2 • 15 Ratings

Welcome to the End of Tourism, a podcast about wanderlust, exile, and radical hospitality. For some, tourism can entail learning, freedom, and financial survival. For others, it means the loss of culture, land, and lineage. Our conversations explore the unauthorized histories and consequences of modern travel. They are dispatches from the resistance. Hosted by Chris Christou.


    #0.6 | Spectacle, The Senses and Surveillance w/ Chris Christou

    #0.6 | Spectacle, The Senses and Surveillance w/ Chris Christou

    Show Notes
    John Urry’s The Tourist Gaze
    The Senses
    Surveillance and Artificial Intelligence (AI)
    Welcome friends to Season Zero of the End of Tourism podcast. In these mini-episodes, you'll hear short transmissions speaking to the principles of the pod. We'll introduce you, our listeners, to the themes and questions that will be woven into our conversations, a kind of primer on our politics. This episode is entitled "Spectacle, the Senses and Surveillance."
    [00:00:31] So we can't talk about tourism without talking about the senses without talking about spectacle and without talking about surveillance. How do people come to perceive new worlds, sensually? How do we smell, taste, touch, hear, and see in foreign lands? And how did tourism become such a spectacle, driven incessantly by cameras, vision, and consumption? How is it that our movements feed surveillance states and surveillance societies?
    [00:01:09] The English sociologist, John Urry coined the phrase, "the tourist gaze." His work dove into the worlds and ways in which tourists see in foreign lands, the way they look, observe, and watch local people, the way they watch local places themselves, and even each other.
    [00:01:32]Modern people move with their eyes. We have become intensely visual beings. Some would even say that we are hypnotized by the eyes. On average, the other senses amount for a combined 15% of our perception. But not every culture carries this sensorial imbalance like we do. In other words, this way of perceiving the world is not natural, but cultural.
    [00:02:03]This is not only what tourists bring to other worlds, but how they arrive in them, how they understand or more often misunderstand other cultures, people and places, through this hypnosis. Western worldviews reflect the images that Western people have their travels. None of this is new. Since the Renaissance, travel writing, manufactured the image of the world for those back home. Before photography, travel writing was the only way to explain to the masses how far off lands appeared.
    [00:02:43] Each traveling author, each trip reflected the histories and power dynamics and prejudices of the time. Today, the same thing happens with photography and with social media. On the podcast, we will look deeply into the stereoscope of media, both past and present to understand these unseen consequences.
    [00:03:08] Today, it seems that Urry's "tourist gaze" is intimately hitched to the camera and to photography. Photography has been a part of travel and tourism since the first cameras in the mid-19th century. Today, however, with the inundation of smartphones and wifi worldwide, the amount of photos taken is astronomical. The total number of photos ever taken has doubled in the span of just a few years.
    [00:03:36] Of course, this has its consequence in the world and especially in the places, tourists, visit. The smartphone with the capacity to connect to the internet almost anywhere is the most dangerous and effective Trojan horse of globalization. If there was ever a way to attack or subvert traditional culture and culture itself, the smartphone, the handset of modernity, is it. It bypasses barriers that might otherwise shield people from the consequences of foreign entitlement. As soon as it has a foothold, it converts local people faster than any missionary would.
    [00:04:19]The relationships that exist in could exist between our human sensing and the natural or more-than-human world is a kind of birthright. We might even call it a birth-responsibility, but today they are often ignored and neglected in favor of technology. The senses themselves are dulled to the point where we require more technology simply in order to get by in our day-to-day lives.
    [00:04:47] As the senses whither, so does the wonder and wisdom and the kinship with the local world that our ancestors apprenticed and entrusted to us. In turn, our senses are outsourced to higher resolutio

    • 11 min
    S5 #5 | Fortress Conservation in the Congo w/ Martin Lena & Linda Poppe (Survival International)

    S5 #5 | Fortress Conservation in the Congo w/ Martin Lena & Linda Poppe (Survival International)

    On this episode, my guests are Martin Lena and Linda Poppe of Survival International. They join me to discuss “fortress conservation” in the Congo, the issues facing Kahuzi-Biega National Park, and the recent victories of Survival International there.
    Linda is a political scientist and director of the Berlin office of Survival International, the global movement for Indigenous peoples' rights. She is also part of Survival’s campaign to Decolonize Conservation, which supports Indigenous peoples, who continue to suffer land theft and human rights abuses in the name of conservation.
    Martin is an advocacy officer for Survival International. He primarily works on Survival’s campaign to Decolonize Conservation and has collected testimonies directly from communities facing violations of their rights in the name of conservation. 
    Show Notes:
    What Conservation Looks like in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    The Evictions of the Batwa
    Safari Tourism in DRC Conflict
    The Militarization of Conservation in Kahuzi-Biega National Park
    Land Guards vs Land Guardians
    Organizing Victory! Scrapping French Involvement in Kahuze-Biega
    The German Government Continues to Fund the Park
    Solidarity: How to Respond / Act in Concert
    Survival International: French government scraps funding plan for Kahuzi-Biega National Park, citing human rights concerns
    Survival International Decolonize Conservation Campaign
    Balancing Act: The Imperative of Social and Ecological Justice in Kahuzi-Biega
    Chris: [00:00:00] Welcome to the End of Tourism Podcast, Martin and Linda. I'd love it if I could start by asking you two to explain to our listeners where you two find yourselves today and what the world looks like there for you.
    Linda: Well, hi everyone. My name is Linda. I work for Survival International and I'm in Berlin. I'm at home, actually, and I look forward to talking to you and chatting with you.
    It's dark outside already, but, well, that's, I guess, the time of the year.
    Martin: And I'm based in Paris, also at home, but I work at Survival's French office. And how does the world feel right now? It feels a bit too warm for October, but other than that.
    Chris: Well, thank you both for for joining me today. I'd like to begin by reminiscing on the season three interview that I had with your colleague Fiore Longo, entitled "Decolonizing Conservation in Africa and Beyond."
    And in that interview, we discussed the history [00:01:00] of conservation as colonization in the context of Tanzania and the national parks that were built there and the indigenous lands that were stolen in order to do so. I'm curious if you two could offer a bit of background for our listeners in terms of the history of conservation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and especially in regards to the Batwa people and the Kahuzi Biega National Park.
    Linda: We were quite you know, astonished of the colonial history that, we find in the park where we're here to discuss today. Well, the Congo, obviously, you know, was a colony. And I think in this context, we also need to look at the conservation that is happening in the DRC today.
    And a lot of the things that you have discussed with our colleague, feel very true for the DRC as well. And the, the park that we're going to look at today, I think it's probably [00:02:00] also the best example to start to explain a little bit what conservation looks like in DRC. It's an older park, so it was created a longer time ago, and it was always regarded as something that is there to protect precious nature for people to look at and not for people to go and live in.
    And this is exactly what the problem is today, which we see continues, that the people that used to live on this land are being pushed outside violently, separated from the land which they call home, which is everything for them, the supermarket, the church, the school, just in the name of conserving supposed nature.
    And unfortunately, this is something that we

    • 50 min
    S5 #4 | Hillwalking & Homecoming in the Highlands w/ Christos Galanis

    S5 #4 | Hillwalking & Homecoming in the Highlands w/ Christos Galanis

    On this episode, my guest is , a friend and scholar who recently completed his PhD in Cultural Geography from The University of Edinburgh where his research centered on themes of displacement and memorial walking practices in the Highlands of Scotland. A child of Greek political refugees on both sides of his family, Christos' work looks at ways in which ceremony and ritual might afford us the capacity to integrate disconnection from place and ancestry. Further, his research into pre-modern Gaelic Highland culture reveals animistic relationship with mountains which disrupt easy definitions of colonialism and indigeneity.
    Show Notes:
    Summoning and Summiting a Doctorate
    The British Empire & Everest
    The Three Roots of Freedom
    Hillwalkers and Homecoming
    The Consequences of Staying and Leaving
    The Romans Make a Desert and Call it Peace
    Farming Emptiness
    Landscapes as Mediums
    Ritualized Acts of Walking
    Christos Galanis’ Official Website
    Chris: [00:00:00] Welcome, Christos, to the End of Tourism podcast.
    Christos: Thank you, Chris.
    Chris: Thank you for joining me today. Would you be willing to let us know where you're dialing in from today?
    Christos: Yeah, I'm calling in from home, which at the moment is Santa Fe, New Mexico in the United States. Yeah, I moved out here for my master's in 2010 and fell in love with it, and and then returned two years ago.
    So it's actually a place that does remind me of the Mediterranean and Greece, even though there's no water, but the kind of mountain desert. So there's a familiarity somehow in my body.
    Chris: Sounds beautiful. Well I'm delighted to speak with you today about your PhD dissertation entitled "A Mountain Threnody: Hill Walking and Homecoming in the Scottish Highlands." And I know you're working on the finishing touches of the dissertation, but I'd like to pronounce a dear congratulations on that huge feat. I imagine after a decade of research and [00:01:00] writing, that you can finally share this gift, at least for now, in this manner, in terms of our conversation together.
    Christos: Thank you. It was probably the hardest thing I've done in my life in terms of a project. Yeah. Nine years.
    Chris: And so, you and I met at Stephen Jenkinson's Orphan Wisdom School many years ago. But beyond that from what I understand that you were born and raised in Toronto and Scarborough to Greek immigrants, traveled often to see family in Greece and also traveled widely yourself, and of course now living in New Mexico for some time. I'm curious why focus on Scotland for your thesis?
    Christos: It was the last place I thought I would be going to. Didn't have a connection there. So I did my master's down here in Albuquerque at UNM and was actually doing a lot of work on the border with Mexico and kind of Southwest Spanish history.
    I actually thought I was going to go to UC San Diego, partly because of the weather and had some connections [00:02:00] there. And two things happened. One was that you have to write your GRE, whatever the standardized test is you need to do for grad school here in the US, you don't have to do in the UK. So that appealed to me.
    And it's also, there's no coursework in the UK. So you just, from day one, you're just doing your own research project. And then I wanted to actually work with what Was and probably still is my favorite academic writer is Tim Ingold, who was based in Aberdeen up in the north of Scotland and is kind of that thing where I was like, "well if I'm gonna do a PhD What if I just literally worked with like the most amazing academic I can imagine working with" and so I contacted him. He was open to meeting and possibly working together and so I was gonna fly to Scotland.
    I was actually spending the winter in Thailand at the time, so I was like, if I'm gonna go all the way to Scotland, maybe I should check out a couple more universities. So, I looked at St. Andrews, which is a little bit north of Edinburgh, and then Edinburgh, then vi

    • 1 hr 2 min
    S5 #3 | We Are Not Americans w/ Healani Sonoda-Pale (Ka Lahui Hawai'i)

    S5 #3 | We Are Not Americans w/ Healani Sonoda-Pale (Ka Lahui Hawai'i)

    My guest on this episode is Healani Sonoda-Pale, a Kanaka Maoli Human Rights advocate for Self-Determination and a Water Protector who has been organizing at the intersection of the indigenous struggle for liberation and environmental protection in Hawai'i. She is a member of the Red Hill Community Representation Initiative and the spokesperson of the Ka Lahui Hawaii Political Action Committee. Healani was born and raised on the island of O'ahu where she resides with her family.
    Show Notes:
    The Beauty of the Pandemic Shutdown in Hawai’i
    The Fallout of the Lahaina Fires in West Maui
    No Controls
    Manufacturing the Authentic
    Reopening for Tourism in the Midst of Catastrophe
    Local Schism: Those in Favour and Those Against
    The Tourism at the Heart of the Housing Crisis
    Ka Lahui Hawai'i Political Action Committee
    The Water Crisis in Oahu
    Decolonizing Tourism is an Oxymoron
    Solidarity with Kanaka Maoli
    Healani Sonoda-Pale Instagram
    Ka Lahui Hawai’i | Twitter
    Oahu Water Protectors | Red Hill Community Representation Initiative
    Chris: [00:00:00] In the first season of the podcast I spoke to Hokulani Aikau and Vernadette Gonzalez about the attempts to decolonize tourism in the Hawaiian islands. And following that Kaleo Patterson. Who offered a deeper historical and cultural background into the ongoing us occupation of Hawaii. The military industrial tourism complex, and some of the traditional forms of hospitality that Hawaiians have engaged in. Since then, and especially because of the wildfires that spread through west Maui this past summer. Listeners have asked again and again, to return to the islands, to host the voices of those. They're now struggling with another catastrophe. Who are offering resilience and resistance. In the face of these enduring consequences. And as such, I welcome.Healani Sonoda-Pale to the pod. Thank you for joining me today, Healani.
    Healani: It's my pleasure to be joining this podcast and to help [00:01:00] spread the message about tourism in Hawai'i.
    Chris: Healani, could you do us the favor of elaborating a bit on where you're speaking from today and how the world looks like for you?
    Healani: Okay. So I'm a Kanaka Maoli woman, born and raised in Hawai'i on the island of O'ahu. I have been in the Hawaiian movement for liberation and self determination for nearly 30 years. I am a student of Dr. Haunani-Kay Trask, and I am on the front lines of many, many issues. The issues that we face today are, many of them are a consequence of tourism.
    The desecration of cultural sites. The degradation of our beautiful beaches pollution, traffic, overcrowding, the high cost of living in Hawai'i, the extremely high cost of housing in Hawai'i. These are all because of tourism. This is happening to Hawai'i. [00:02:00] As a result, direct result of the tourist industry, which Hawaii relies on.
    And in Hawaii, we have two businesses. We have the military industrial complex and the tourist industry. Those are the two worst industries to rely on, number one. And they are the most exploitive and extractive industries to have. They do not enhance our way of life here on, on these islands in Hawaii.
    They do the opposite. They have brought many of us to the brink where we are now, most of us living paycheck to paycheck. The average cost of a house in Hawaii is a million dollars.
    I believe Honolulu is the number one or at least the top three most expensive cities in the United States to live in. So tourism is a plague in Hawaii. It is a plague upon this place and it has caused us to [00:03:00] struggle on a daily basis, not just financially and not just socially, mentally as well.
    Having to deal with tourists on a daily basis in Hawaii is frustrating, so that's kind of like the space I'm coming from. I am involved with the water issue, protecting our water, which is now something that is a huge issue. I'm very much involved in the Red Hill issue. I'm involved with protecting Iwi Kūpuna, which is our t

    • 45 min
    S5 #2 | Composting Cultures of Disposability w/ Clementine Morrigan & Jay LeSoleil (F*****g Cancelled)

    S5 #2 | Composting Cultures of Disposability w/ Clementine Morrigan & Jay LeSoleil (F*****g Cancelled)

    On this episode, my guests are and of the Podcast.
    Clementine Morrigan is a writer and public intellectual based in Montréal, Canada. She writes popular and controversial essays about culture, politics, ethics, relationships, sexuality, and trauma. A passionate believer in independent media, she’s been making zines since the year 2000 and is the author of several books. She’s known for her iconic white-text-on-a-black-background mini-essays on Instagram. One of the leading voices on the Canadian Left and one half of the F*****g Cancelled podcast, Clementine is an outspoken critic of cancel culture and a proponent of building solidarity across difference. She is a socialist, a feminist, and a vegan for the animals and the earth.
    Jay is a writer, artist and designer from Montreal and is the author of the Substack jaylesoleil.com and the zine series What Else Is There to Live For. Jay is also the co-host of F*****g Cancelled.
    Show Notes:
    Clementine & Jay’s Travels
    The Nexus
    Identitarianism and Identity Politics
    Gentrification & Solidarity
    How Nationalism Leaks into the Left
    The Contradictions of Identitarianism
    Freedom, Limits and Guesthood
    Borders and Biomes
    The Quest for Offline Communities
    Radical & Reciprocal Hospitality
    Clementine’s Substack
    Jay’s Substack (including Dumplings & Domination)
    Clementine’s Shop
    Jay’s Store
    F*****g Cancelled Shop
    F*****g Cancelled Podcast
    Chris: [00:00:00] Welcome to the pod, Clementine and Jay. It's an honor to have you both here today. Each of your work both individually and together has been a great influence on mine and definitely eye-opening and if I can say so much needed in our time. So thank you for joining me.
    Jay: Thank you, man. Thanks for having us.
    Clementine: Thanks for having us.
    Chris: So, I'd like to start, if we can, by asking you both where you find yourselves today and what the world looks like for you through each of your eyes.
    Jay: Well, we both find ourselves in Montreal which is where we live. I was working in homeless shelters for years and then I got let go cause I tried to unionize the one I was working at. Actually I succeeded in unionizing the one I was working at. And they mysteriously did not have any money to renew my contract after that.
    And yeah, so I'm writing and I just launched a new solo podcast about like world history outside of the West. And so I've been working on that. It's called [00:01:00] dumplings and domination, which are two things that human beings love. And Yeah, so that's, that's what I'm up to.
    Clementine: Yeah, so I'm also, yeah, I find myself in Montreal, in the snow, and I guess, relevant to the topics of this podcast one of the things I'm grappling with now is my perpetual existence as a unilingual anglophone in the city of Montreal, which is a bilingual city, but it's a French city, like.
    Actually. And I'm planning on having a child and I'm planning to have this child here. And so I'm facing the dilemma of being like an English speaker whose child is not going to just be an English speaker. And so I really need to learn French, basically. So this is my struggle, because being 37 and only speaking one language my entire life, it's like super hard to learn another language.
    And I've really, really struggled. A couple times I've made an attempt to learn French, and it's like really [00:02:00] frustrating, but that is one of the things I'm grappling with. I feel like it's relevant to the podcast, because in many ways, even though I've lived in Montreal for like almost seven years, there's a way in which I still am kind of like a tourist here, because I haven't learned the language.
    So, will I complete my transition into becoming Quebecois?
    Chris: Yeah, maybe so.
    Jay: Only time will tell.
    Chris: I was just reading this biography of Ivan Illich, who's like was an Austrian philosopher and he said that like trying to learn a new language, especially if you're immersed in the place

    • 1 hr 16 min
    S5 #1 | The Right to Stay Home w/ David Bacon

    S5 #1 | The Right to Stay Home w/ David Bacon

    On this episode, my guest is David Bacon, a California writer and documentary photographer. A former union organizer, today he documents labor, the global economy, war and migration, and the struggle for human rights. His latest book, In the Fields of the North / En los campos del norte (COLEF / UC Press, 2017) includes over 300 photographs and 12 oral histories of farm workers. Other books include The Right to Stay Home and Illegal People, which discuss alternatives to forced migration and the criminalization of migrants. Communities Without Borders includes over 100 photographs and 50 narraatives about transnational migrant communities and The Children of NAFTA is an account of worker resistance on the US/Mexico border in the wake of NAFTA.
    Show Notes:
    David’s Early Years
    Learning about Immigration through Unions
    The Meaning of Being Undocumented
    NAFTA and Mexican Migration
    The Source of Corn / Maize
    Binational Front of Indigenous Organizations / Frente Indigena de Organizacaions Binacionales
    The Right to Stay Home
    Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador (AMLO) Campaign
    The Face & History of Immigration in the USA
    Immigration Reform and Amnesty
    The Violence of Fortuna Silver Mines in Oaxaca
    Solidarity, Change and Optimism
    The Right to Stay Home: How US Policy Drives Mexican Migration
    In the Fields of the North / En los campos del norte
    Illegal People: How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants
    Communities without Borders: Images and Voices from the World of Migration
    The Children of NAFTA: Labor Wars on the U.S./Mexico Border
    David’s Twitter Account
    David’s Official Website
    Chris: [00:00:00] Welcome to the End of Tourism podcast, David. It's an honor to have you on the pod. To begin, I'd like to ask you where you find yourself today and what the world looks like for you there.
    David: Well, I live in Berkeley, here in California, and I am sitting in front of my computer screen having just what I've been up to today before talking with you.
    Chris: Hmm. Well, thank you so much for joining us, and thank you for your work. Perhaps I could ask you what drew you to the issues of labor and migration.
    David: Sure. Well, I come from a kind of left wing union family, so I knew about unions and workers and strikes and things like that from probably since before I can remember. And so I was kind of an activist when I was in high school, got involved in the [00:01:00] student movement in the 1960s at the University of California, got involved in the free speech movement, got tossed out by the university, actually, and wound up going to work after that, really, because I got married, had a daughter, and I got married, had a daughter, and, I needed to get a job and, you know, worked for quite a while as a a printer in the same trade that my father was, had been in went back to night school to learn more of the, of the trade, how to do different parts of it, how to run presses and so forth and then got involved, this is, you know, in the late 60s, early 70s got involved in the movement to support farm workers, really, and I was one of those people, you know, if you're my age, you remember this, if you're younger, you probably don't, but we used to picket supermarkets to try to get them [00:02:00] to stop selling the grapes and the wine and the lettuce that was on strike, and we would stand out in front of Safeway and other supermarkets with our red flags with the black eagle on them, And ask customers, you know, not to go into the store, not to buy the products that farmworkers were on strike against.
    And I got really interested in. I'm curious about the workers that we were supporting. You know, I grew up in Oakland and so I didn't know anything about farm workers, really. I didn't know anything about rural California, rural areas, didn't speak Spanish didn't know much about Chicano, Latinos.
    Oakland's a pretty diverse city, but in the area of Oakland where I grew up in you know, in our high school,

    • 1 hr 3 min

Customer Reviews

4.2 out of 5
15 Ratings

15 Ratings

LastBornPodcast ,


Many thanks to Chris (the host) for the labor. Beautiful, vital work.

Shinay Tredeau ,

Thank you.

Thank you for your interview with Stephen Jenkinson. As an interviewer you’re able to bring out a deeper aspect of Mr. Jenkinson and I deeply appreciate that you let him go on and on. Well done!

Curtismayfield ,


Lightweight, the narrative does not fit. "the end of tourism" according to a tour guide. False narrative as branding

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