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Science and stories about our awesome planet-- in just a few minutes!

MinuteEarth Neptune Studios

    • 科学

Science and stories about our awesome planet-- in just a few minutes!

    • video
    How This River Made Chimps Violent

    How This River Made Chimps Violent

    Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth and use code MINUTEEARTH to get 70% off a 3 year plan plus 1 additional month free. When a group of apes got split apart, slight differences in their new environments led to big differences in future generations. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Chimpanzee: A great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives. Bonobo: A slightly smaller great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives. Speciation: A lineage-splitting event in which a population of the same species becomes two different species. Allopatric speciation: Speciation that occurs when populations of the same species get isolated geographically. Hominini: The taxonomical classification that includes humans, chimps, and bonobos. Pan: The taxonomical classification that includes chimps and bonobos. Chimpobo: A name we just made up to identify the common ancestor of the chimpanzee and bonobo. Congo river: The deepest river in the world and the second largest (behind the Amazon) in discharge volume. G-G Rubbing: A form of genital to genital contact bonobos sometimes use to form social bonds. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder VHS Rewind effect based on footage by http://www.anfx.co ___________________________________________ References: Caswell, J., Mallick, S., Richter, D., Neubauer, J., Schirmer, C., Gnerre, S., Reich, D. (2008). Analysis of Chimpanzee History Based on Genome Sequence Alignments. PLoS Genetics. 4(4): e1000057. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000057. Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139. Prufer, K. et al (2012). The Bonobo Genome Compared with the Chimpanzee and Human Genomes. Nature. 486: 527–531. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature11128. Hey, J. (2010). The Divergence of Chimpanzee Species and Subspecies as Revealed in Multipopulation Isolation-with-Migration Analyses. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27(4): 921-933. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877540/. Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139. Stanford, C. (2019). Personal Communication. Professor of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, University of Southern California.

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    • video
    The Fastest-Growing Plant In The World

    The Fastest-Growing Plant In The World

    Get your first audiobook and two Audible Originals for free when you try Audible for 30 days visit https://www.audible.com/minuteearth or text “minuteearth” to 500-500! Bamboo is the world’s fastest growing plant thanks to the cell elongation process it shares with all grasses and its unique cell wall layering adaptation, allowing it to shoot up to 100 ft (30m) in just 8 weeks. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Rhizome: a continuously growing horizontal underground stem which puts out lateral shoots and roots at intervals Vacuole: an organelle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid, whose main purpose in plants is to maintain pressure against the cell wall Microfibrils: fiber-like strands consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose that make up the cell wall structure Auxin: a plant hormone which causes the elongation of cells in shoots and is involved in regulating plant growth ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Fastest growing plant record - https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/fastest-growing-plant Grass: An Introduction - https://lizzieharper.co.uk/2018/06/grass-an-introduction/ Bamboo Shoot Timelapse - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77Pgqf0rTbY _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Narrator, Script Writer, and Co-Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator and Co-Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Velasquez, Silvia Melina, et al. "Auxin and cellular elongation." Plant Physiology 170.3 (2016): 1206-1215. Nonami, Hiroshi. "Plant water relations and control of cell elongation at low water potentials." Journal of Plant Research 111.3 (1998): 373-382. Wei, Qiang, et al. "Cellular and molecular characterizations of a slow-growth variant provide insights into the fast growth of bamboo." Tree physiology 38.4 (2018): 641-654. Li, Long, et al. "The association of hormone signalling genes, transcription and changes in shoot anatomy during moso bamboo growth." Plant biotechnology journal 16.1 (2018): 72-85. Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, Gunnar Kleist, and Richard J. Murphy. "Developmental changes in cell wall structure of phloem fibres of the bamboo Dendrocalamus asper." Annals of Botany 94.4 (2004): 497-505. Gamuyao, Rico, et al. "Hormone distribution and transcriptome profiles in bamboo shoots provide insights on bamboo stem emergence and growth." Plant and Cell Physiology 58.4 (2017): 702-716. Wysocki, William P., et al. "Evolution of the bamboos (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): a full plastome phylogenomic analysis." BMC evolutionary biology 15.1 (2015): 50. Cosgrove, Daniel J. "Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening." F1000Research 5 (2016). Lodish, Harvey, et al. "Molecular cell biology 4th edition." National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bookshelf (2000). Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine. "Cellular responses to auxin: division versus expansion." Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 2.5 (2010): a001446. Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, and Richard J. Murphy. "Ultrastructure of f

    • 2分
    • video
    How To Turn Poop Into Power

    How To Turn Poop Into Power

    Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth and use code MINUTEEARTH to get 70% off a 3 year plan and an extra month for free. Protect yourself online today. We could generate a lot of usable energy from human and animal poop through greater adoption of a process for using microbes to break down poop into methane gas. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Anaerobic digestion: a sequence of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen Methanogens: a methane-producing bacterium, especially an archaean which reduces carbon dioxide to methane Wastewater treatment: a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment, or directly reused Biogas: the mixture of gases produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter, primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide, which can be used as a renewable energy source ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Andriani, Dian, et al. "A review of recycling of human excreta to energy through biogas generation: Indonesia case." Energy Procedia 68 (2015): 219-225. Karki, Amrit B. "Biogas as renewable energy from organic waste." Journal (2009). Hatchett, Allison N. "Bovines and Global Warming: How the Cows are Heating Things Up and What Can Be Done to Cool Them Down." Wm. & Mary Envtl. L. & Pol'y Rev. 29 (2004): 767. Onojo, O. J., et al. "Estimation of the electric power potential of human waste using students hostel soak-away pits." American Journal of Engineering Research, 02 (9) (2013): 198-203. “RCA Issue Brief #7.” Animal Manure Management, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Dec. 1997, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/null/?cid=nrcs143_014211#table1. “Electricity Generation from Biogas.” Energypedia, https://energypedia.info/wiki/Electricity_Generation_from_Biogas.

    • 3分
    • video
    You Have More Bones Than You Think

    You Have More Bones Than You Think

    Go to curiositystream.com/minute to get a free month trial with CuriosityStream and get a subscription to Nebula bundled in for free!   Because the ossification process can differ so much from human to human, we have a wide range of potential bone numbers.   Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:  Cartilage: The flexible connective tissue that is turned to bone by osteoblasts.Osteoblasts: Cells that control calcium and mineral deposition to turn cartilage into bone.Sesamoids: Bones embedded in tendons or muscles.Fabella: A large sesamoid bone occasionally found behind the knee joint. Coccyx: The small set of semi-fused triangular bones at the end of the vertebral column. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/   Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC   And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Director and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman  Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________   References:   Goldberg I, Nathan H. (1987). Anatomy and pathology of the sesamoid bones. The hand compared to the foot. International Orthopaedics. 11(2):141-7. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3610408.Vineet K. Sarin  Gregory M. Erickson  Nicholas J. Giori A. Gabrielle Bergman  Dennis R. Carter (2003). Coincident development of sesamoid bones and clues to their evolution. The Anatomical Record.5: 174-180. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-0185%2819991015%29257%3A5%3C174%3A%3AAID-AR6%3E3.0.CO%3B2-O. Tao Sun, Lingxiang Wang, Haitao Zhao,Wenjuan Wu,and Wenhai Hu (2016). Prevalence, morphological variation and ossification of sesamoid bones of the forefoot: a retrospective radiographic study of 8,716 Chinese subjects. 2(3): 91–96. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410651/. Postacchini F, Massobrio M. (1983). Idiopathic coccygodynia: Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. 65(8): 1116-1124. Retrieved from: https://www.coccyx.org/medabs/posta.htm.Meals, Roy. (2019). Personal Communication. http://www.AboutBone.com

    • 2分
    • video
    Why It’s HARD To Bring A New Apple To Market

    Why It’s HARD To Bring A New Apple To Market

    Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Fruit trees are unpredictable and grow slowly, and consumer tastes are fickle, so successful new varieties of fruit are rare. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: grafting: joining together a cut branch with a cut root of the same species to produce a new individual ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: Ever Salazar and Alex Reich With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, and Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Hoying SA, AM DeMarree and MM Sazo. 2012. Successful Apple Grafting Techniques for New York. New York Fruit Quarterly 20 7-10. Janick J. 2005. The origin of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant Breeding Rev. 25:255-320. Luby JJ and DS Bedford. 1992. Honeycrisp apple. Minnesota Report 225-1992 (AD-MR-5877-B) Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. 2019. Fruit Breeding. University of Minnesota website. http://arb.umn.edu/horticultural-research-center/fruit-breeding Seetin M. 2018. 2018 U.S. Apple Crop Outlook and Overview. usapple.org 42 pages Tadesse W et al. 2019. Genetic gains in wheat breeding and its role in feeding the world. Crop Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics 2019;1:e190005. https://doi.org/10.20900/cbgg20190005 Yamamato T. 2016. Breeding, genetics and genomics of fruit trees. Breeding Science 66:1-2.

    • 3分
    • video
    Nobody Really Knows What A Concussion Is

    Nobody Really Knows What A Concussion Is

    Go to curiositystream.com/minute to get a free month trial with CuriosityStream and get a subscription to Nebula bundled in for free!   Experts can't agree on the definition of the term "concussion," which makes it difficult to diagnose, treat, and research this important brain injury.    Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:  Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in people with a history of repetitive brain trauma (often athletes)Traumatic brain injury (TBI): a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injurySubdural hematoma: a collection of blood between the layers of tissue that surround the brainCerebral microbleeding: small chronic brain hemorrhages which are likely caused by structural abnormalities of the small vessels of the brain  ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:  Everything we know about concussions is wrong – https://qz.com/1136683/everything-we-know-about-concussions-is-wrong/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/   Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC   And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius  Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________   References: Rasmussen, Carly, et al. "How Dangerous Are Youth Sports for the Brain: A Review of the Evidence." Berkeley J. Ent. & Sports L. 7 (2018): 67. - https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1077&context=bjesl Shen, Francis X. "Are youth sports concussion statutes working." Duq. L. Rev. 56 (2018): 7. - https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3172294 Sharp, David J., and Peter O. Jenkins. "Concussion is confusing us all." Practical neurology 15.3 (2015): 172-186. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4453625/ Tator, Charles H. "Concussions and their consequences: current diagnosis, management and prevention." CMAJ 185.11 (2013): 975-979. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3735746/ Whitelaw, A. S., and I. Young. "A case of perilymphatic fistula in blunt head injury." Emergency medicine journal 22.12 (2005): 921-921. - https://emj.bmj.com/content/22/12/921Mason, Peggy. “Concussion Is a Counter-Productive Term: Let's Retire It.” The Brain Is Sooooo Cool!, 5 July 2015, https://thebrainissocool.com/2015/07/05/concussion-is-a-counter-productive-term-lets-retire-it/ Haller, Sven, et al. "Cerebral microbleeds: imaging and clinical significance." Radiology 287.1 (2018): 11-28. - https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2018170803 Goldenbaum, Ellen. “Is It Really a Concussion? Symptoms Overlap with Neck Injuries, Making Diagnosis a Tough Call.” UB News Center, 29 July 2014, http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2014/07/040.html

    • 3分

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