16 episodes

AI lab podcast, "decrypting" expert analysis to understand Artificial Intelligence from a policy making point of view.

AI lab by information labs information labs

    • Technology

AI lab podcast, "decrypting" expert analysis to understand Artificial Intelligence from a policy making point of view.

    AI lab TL;DR | Elisa Giomi - The Unacknowledged AI Revolution in the Media & Creative Industries

    AI lab TL;DR | Elisa Giomi - The Unacknowledged AI Revolution in the Media & Creative Industries

    🔍 In this TL;DR episode, Dr Elisa Giomi, Associate Professor at the Roma Tre University and Commissioner of the Italian Communications Regulatory Authority (AGCOM), discusses her recent contribution on Intermedia, the journal of the International Institute of Communications (IIC), titled “The (almost) unacknowledged revolution of AI in the media and creative industries”, with the AI lab

    📌 TL;DR Highlights
    ⏲️[00:00] Intro
    ⏲️[01:15] Q1 - AI’s impact vs. past revolutions:
    How does AI’s impact on media and creative industries compare to historical technological revolutions? 
    ⏲️[05:22] Q2 - Navigating AI in media:
    How should we balance AI’s benefits in combating misinformation vs its potential risks? 
    ⏲️[11:18] Q3 - Balancing copyright & AI:
    You state that: “[AI] and human intelligence follow [a] not dissimilar logic. So we should not use a double standard to regulate them”. What should a balanced approach to copyright in AI look like?
    ⏲️[17:48] Wrap-up & Outro

    💭 Q1 - AI’s impact vs. past revolutions

    🗣️ The [AI] revolution (...) in the media and creative industries, as many previous ones, will probably be declared a revolution only long after it happened.

    🗣️ AI in the media sector[:] Its disruptive effect goes unnoticed (...), [and] the media and creative industries remain under the radar in the public debate, since they are not among the leading adoption fields.

    🗣️ Two of the winners of the last Pulitzer Prize for journalism admitted using AI systems in their investigation and getting so many benefits from AI.

    🗣️ Why the AI revolution looks like the main technological revolutions of the past? Its ability to divide [and] polarise, the public debate between enthusiasts (...) and radical opponents (...).

    💭 Q2 - Navigating AI in media

    🗣️ Every technological innovation has been accompanied by a sort of squinting effect which leads to amplifying the distorted uses to the detriment of the more abundant beneficial applications.

    🗣️ Demonising AI for fear of its side effects would be as if in the past we had refused to switch from the plough to the tractor for fear that the tractor could pollute or run over people and animals.

    🗣️ AI is not only used to produce fake news and misleading content, but also in fact checking and identifying deepfakes. It is used in fighting disinformation.

    🗣️ Only by taking into account opportunities and risks at the same time, we will be able to develop a balanced regulation and avoid emergency and radical responses in the wake of moral panics produced by AI misuses.

    🗣️ The media (...) are likely to shape our perception of the world and to guide other choices, so they should have been included in the [EU AI Act] high-risk sectors.

    💭 Q3 - Balancing copyright & AI

    🗣️ I have strong misgivings about the remuneration hypothesis[:] (...)  it privileges publishers over any other content producers.

    🗣️ I’m not sure having different rules for the human and artificial mind makes sense. My conclusion here is that maybe it’s too early to find a solution to the copyright problems raised by AI.

    🗣️ Any balanced resolution must have two starting points: first, a rigorous analysis of the real value chain (...), and second, (...) [a] precise diagnosis. (...) Regulate only when there is a [real] pathology to be healed.

    📌 About Our Guest
    🎙️ Dr Elisa Giomi | Associate Professor at Roma Tre University & Commissioner of the Italian Communications Regulatory Authority (AGCOM)
     𝕏  https://x.com/@elisagiomi
    🌐 International Institute of Communications (IIC) - The (Almost) Unacknowledged Revolution of AI in the Media and Creative Industries
    https://iicintermedia.org/vol-52-issue-1/the-almost-unacknowledged-revolution-of-ai-in-the-media-and-creative-industries/
    🌐 AGCOM - Dr Elisa Giomi
    https://www.agcom.it/elisa-giomi

    Dr Elisa Giomi is an asso

    • 18 min
    AI lab TL;DR | Derek Slater - What the Copyright Case Against Ed Sheeran Can Teach Us About AI

    AI lab TL;DR | Derek Slater - What the Copyright Case Against Ed Sheeran Can Teach Us About AI

    🔍 In this TL;DR episode, Derek Slater (Proteus Strategies) discusses his recent blog post on the Tech Policy Press website, titled “What the Copyright Case Against Ed Sheeran Can Teach Us About AI”, with the AI lab

    📌 TL;DR Highlights
    ⏲️[00:00] Intro
    ⏲️[01:11] Q1 - Legal boundaries & creativity:
    How to define the boundary between protectable expression and unprotectable building blocks in music & other creative fields?
    What lessons does this offer for generative AI?
    ⏲️[05:13] Q2 - Consent vs. enclosure:
    What is enclosure?
    How can we balance it with consent in regulating AI tools?
    What guiding principles should policymakers follow to not stifle innovation & creativity?
    ⏲️[09:35] Q3 - Technological impact on art:
    What is the long-term impact of generative AI on music & artistic expression, as other technological advances ultimately revolutionised creative industries after an initial backlash?
    ⏲️[12:18] Wrap-up & Outro
    💭 Q1 - Legal boundaries & creativity

    🗣️ All creativity builds on the past. All songs are made up of a limited number of notes and chords available to the composers [and] to protect their combination would give Let’s Get It On an impermissible monopoly[, the judge said].
    🗣️ Copyright has always allowed certain uses of existing content (...) by drawing lines between protectable expression and unprotectable ideas, facts, and other elements.
    🗣️ Rightsholders can demand consent for some uses, but they are not allowed to enclose and cut off the basic building blocks of culture and knowledge.
    🗣️ Generative AI: (...) it’s a big statistical analysis of lots and lots of texts to derive rules about syntax and how different concepts are related (...) For music, it’s analysing lots and lots of music to tease out those basic building blocks.
    🗣️ [AI training] can’t be reduced to the simplicity of consent (...) because the question is: consent for what? (...) Deriving insights [and] uncopyrightable elements from protectable expression generally can be permissible.
    💭 Q2 - Consent vs. enclosure

    🗣️ We also recognise downsides to [copyright], (...) meaning the public can no longer freely build on and use it. (...) We’ve always had copyright protection but also limits so that enclosure (...) doesn’t go too far.
    🗣️ When is it unethical to stop people from (...) using basic building block[s] of language or music? Because that information, that knowledge, those cultural artefacts, ought to belong to the public.
    🗣️ I think from a copyright perspective, the first key principle is: is this protection necessary to encourage creativity (...)? If creativity is already booming, abundant, and would happen anyway (...) then there should not be an issue.
    🗣️ When we think about generative AI, these are tools for productivity, for creativity, not for piracy (...). They’re not about simply reusing the works that they were trained on in the outputs. (...) That’s considered a bug, a failure (...) and something to be avoided.
    🗣️ When somebody uses [an AI] tool like Suno or Udio to create a new song, that’s in line with copyright’s purpose. (...) It crosses the line (...) where that output is directly substituting, reusing that communicative expression embodied in some specific work.
    💭 Q3 - Technological impact on art

    🗣️ One way to think about [AI] is sort of like the synthesizer, computer-generated graphics or Photoshop, where, at first, people said, this is not music, [or] art, and over time, it became integrated into artistic processes in a variety of ways.
    🗣️ [2023] Oscar winner, ’Everything Everywhere All at Once’, used the generative AI tool Runway to edit one of its famous scenes. Nobody knew that was generative AI at the time. Nobody said ‘Oh, this is a generative AI movie’, but it was part of their artistic process.
    🗣️ It’s acknowledged that generative AI is driving an abun

    • 13 min
    AI lab - AI in Action | Episode 01: AI History

    AI lab - AI in Action | Episode 01: AI History

    We are kickstarting our AI in Action series by diving headfirst into the key milestones that led to the gradual deployment of Artificial Intelligence, or AI for short. You might think it's some shiny new invention, looking at all the recent media coverage about robots taking over your jobs and writing bad poetry. But hold on to your Roomba, because AI has been around longer than your grandma’s pocket calculator.
    Read more & grab the infographic of this timeline here:https://informationlabs.org/ai-lab-ai-in-action-episode-01-ai-history/

    • 9 min
    AI lab TL;DR | Žiga Turk - Brussels is About to Protect Citizens from Intelligence

    AI lab TL;DR | Žiga Turk - Brussels is About to Protect Citizens from Intelligence

    🔍 In this TL;DR episode, Professor Žiga Turk (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia) discusses his recent contribution for the Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies on how “Brussels is About to Protect Citizens from Intelligence” with the AI lab

    📌 TL;DR Highlights
    ⏲️[00:00] Intro
    ⏲️[01:55] Q1 - Why do you think AI regulation prioritises limiting risks over promoting innovation and freedom of expression? How can governments balance security and privacy with technological innovation?
    ⏲️[05:13] Q2 - You view AI as a 'general technology' that shouldn't be specifically regulated, advocating for technology-neutral laws. What does this mean in practice?
    ⏲️[09:46] Wrap-up & Outro

    🗣️ The mistake is to try to regulate technology, it is behaviours that have to be regulated. (...) If politicians (...) go about regulating every new technology that appears, they will always be behind the curve.
    🗣️ The even bigger danger is [the] kind of chilling effect [AI regulation] would have for European industries, people and businesses who will not have access to the latest and greatest AI tools (...).
    🗣️ Some AI tools are coming to European customers with a delay or not at all. This puts the whole European economy, its citizens [and] its scientists at a disadvantage with their competition.
    🗣️ Investors would be hesitant. Do I want to invest in [AI] in Europe, which is so tightly regulated?
    🗣️ I don't think it matters whether you make a deepfake with Photoshop or let AI do it. If deepfakes need to be labelled, they should be labelled regardless of the technology.
    🗣️ Admire (...) the thinkers and politicians of the Enlightenment era (...) [for] not going “[the printed press] will create all kinds of unacceptable risks, we have to regulate ex-ante (...)”. Instead, they created (...) legislation on freedom of expression.
    🗣️ In the early days (...), the US created regulation that actually freed Internet companies from some potential dangers of hosting user content on their platforms, which created this whole Internet industry and creativity around platforms.

    📌 About Our Guest
    🎙️ Žiga Turk | Professor, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
     𝕏  https://twitter.com/@zigaTurkEU 
    🌐 Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies - Brussels is About to Protect Citizens from Intelligence
    https://www.martenscentre.eu/blog/brussels-is-about-to-protect-citizens-from-intelligence/🌐 Regulating artificial intelligence: A technology-independent approach. European View, 23(1), 87-93https://doi.org/10.1177/17816858241242890 
    🌐 Prof. Žiga Turk
    https://www.zturk.com/p/english.html 

    Žiga Turk is a Professor at the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia) and a member of the Academic Council of the Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies. He holds degrees in engineering and computer science. Prof. Turk was Minister for Growth, as well as Minister of Education, Science, Culture and Sports in the Government of Slovenia and Secretary General of the Felipe Gonzalez Reflection Group on the Future of Europe. As an academic, author and public speaker, he studies communication, internet science and scenarios of future global developments, particularly the role of technology and innovation.

    • 10 min
    AI lab hot item | MEP Axel Voss: In Search of Pragmatic Solutions for AI Devs & the Creative Sector

    AI lab hot item | MEP Axel Voss: In Search of Pragmatic Solutions for AI Devs & the Creative Sector

    🔥 In this 'Hot Item', MEP Axel Voss (Germany, EPP) & the AI lab discuss his intentions to bring the creative industry and AI developers around the table in mid-April for a first exchange to gain a better understanding of the issues perceived on both sides

    📌 Hot Item Highlights
    ⏲️[00:00] Intro
    ⏲️[00:53] MEP Axel Voss (Germany, EPP)
    ⏲️[09:51] Wrap-up & Outro

    🗣️ The copyright problem was already discussed in a way five years ago, but now we have a new technology in place. (...) This problem occurs once again. We should not wait for an imbalanced situation.

    🗣️ We need to solve the [AI] problem, not only for the press publishers but for the whole creative sector.

    🗣️ Technology can't just ignore existing laws (...) and (...) existing laws should not hinder new developments (...). We need a balance. (...) We actually have to try to find a pragmatic solution at the end, [and] it should be (...) legally binding (...).

    🗣️ We need these ideas of what is feasible with the technology (...). If we are thinking about [respecting] copyright (...) it might be critical (...) to say what is copyright protected, (...) who is the copyright holder. (...) [A] problem [might be:] how to do this.

    🗣️ If we have globally acting machines (...), should there be a kind of global approach to it? We are inviting some of our like-minded friends in the world (...) So the transatlantic system might play a role.

    🗣️ We also have to think (...) if there is a way to align some aspects of copyright in the interest of the AI developers.
    🗣️ We have a lot of issues to align. This should be a starting point. It should at first produce some ideas of problems that a legislator or a moderator (...) might be helpful with [in] what needs to be solved.
     
    📌 About Our Guest
    🎙️ MEP Axel Voss (Germany, EPP)
      𝕏 https://twitter.com/AxelVossMdEP
    🌐 MEP Axel Voss
    https://www.europarl.europa.eu/meps/en/96761/AXEL_VOSS/home 
    https://www.axel-voss-europa.de 

    Axel Voss (CDU) is a Member of the European Parliament for Germany in the European People's Party (EPP) Group. He is the EPP Group coordinator for the Committee on Legal Affairs (JURI), a deputy member of the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE), and, from 2020 to 2022, a member and rapporteur in the Special Committee on Artificial Intelligence. He is (shadow-)rapporteur for the EU AI Act and was rapporteur on the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (CDSM).

    • 10 min
    AI lab TL;DR | Nuno Sousa e Silva - Are AI Models’ Weights Protected Databases?

    AI lab TL;DR | Nuno Sousa e Silva - Are AI Models’ Weights Protected Databases?

    🔍 In this TL;DR episode, Assistant Professor Nuno Sousa e Silva (Universidade Católica Portuguesa) discusses his recent Kluwer Copyright Blog contribution, “Are AI Models’ Weights Protected Databases?”, with the AI lab.

    📌 TL;DR Highlights
    ⏲️[00:00] Intro
    ⏲️[01:41] Q1 - What are weights in an AI model?
    ⏲️[05:14] Q2 - Why could the EU Database Directive apply to AI models in certain cases, and what would the consequences be?
    ⏲️[09:23] Wrap-up & Outro

    🗣️ Models are basically tools that humans use to simplify the real world, to boil it down, to describe it, and the way that this is done is through mathematical functions.

    🗣️ Weights are nothing but a set of numerical values that represent the strength of the connection of neurons in a neural network.

    🗣️ [The Database Directive’s] aim is to protect the investment in the creation, presentation, and verification of data, so basically data products and the producer of data products. Admittedly, this had no AI models in mind.

    🗣️ We know how much money and effort is put into developing [an AI] model and that the model is really the weights.

    🗣️ For EU-based companies that qualify, that means that they have a right to control the reuse or extraction of a substantial part of that database, in other words (...): a right to control the use of the model beyond contractual rules.

    🗣️ Some people say that if we want to talk about open source in AI, it needs to be both the disclosure of the training set and the model weights.

    📌 About Our Guest
    🎙️ Nuno Sousa e Silva | Lawyer (Partner @ PTCS) & Law Professor (Universidade Católica Portuguesa)
    🌐 Kluwer Copyright Blog - Are AI Models’ Weights Protected Databases?
    https://copyrightblog.kluweriplaw.com/2024/01/18/are-ai-models-weights-protected-databases/ 
    🌐 EU Database Directive (96/9/EC)
    https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A31996L0009 
    🌐 Nuno Sousa e Silva
    https://www.nss.pt/en/#about 

    Nuno Sousa e Silva is a Lawyer (Partner at PTCS) and a Law Professor. He graduated from the Law School of the Catholic University of Portugal (Porto) and obtained a Master of Laws and a PhD from the same University and holds an LLM degree in Intellectual Property and Competition Law (MIPLC). Nuno acts frequently as an arbitrator, advisor, and legal expert for companies, governments, and international institutions. He published four books and over fifty articles on Intellectual Property, IT Law, EU Law, and Private Law. He has taught and given lectures in Portugal, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Denmark, and the UK.

    • 10 min

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