6 episodes

“Article to Audio” features interviews with scholars about their research on negotiation and conflict management from our field's top academic journals. We have specifically designed the format and content of the episodes to be rooted in research findings but avoiding complicated jargon so that the series can be useful for a variety of audiences, including upper-year undergraduates, graduate students, and the general public.

Article to Audio M.-H. Tsai, L. Rees, J. Parlamis, M. A. Gross, D. A. Cai

    • Business

“Article to Audio” features interviews with scholars about their research on negotiation and conflict management from our field's top academic journals. We have specifically designed the format and content of the episodes to be rooted in research findings but avoiding complicated jargon so that the series can be useful for a variety of audiences, including upper-year undergraduates, graduate students, and the general public.

    Episode 4, Part 2 Explaining Differences in Men and Women's Use of Unethical Tactics in Negotiations

    Episode 4, Part 2 Explaining Differences in Men and Women's Use of Unethical Tactics in Negotiations

    Emerging evidence suggests that competitiveness and empathy explain men's greater willingness to use unethical tactics in negotiations. We tested whether and how robustly they do with three distinct studies, run with three distinct populations. Simultaneous mediation analyses generally, but not completely, confirmed our expectations. In Study 1, only competitiveness mediated sex differences in unethical negotiation tactics among Chilean business students. Although empathy also explained willingness to use unethical negotiation tactics, the Chilean men and women did not differ in this regard. In Study 2, competitiveness and empathy both mediated sex differences in American business students’ intentions to lie to a client, but competitiveness explained greater variance. In Study 3, both factors explained sex differences in lying to bargaining partners for real stakes by working-age Americans. Our findings suggest that competitiveness and empathy each explain sex differences in willingness to use unethical tactics, but the former does so more consistently.

    • 16 min
    Episode 4: Explaining Differences in Men and Women's Use of Unethical Tactics in Negotiations

    Episode 4: Explaining Differences in Men and Women's Use of Unethical Tactics in Negotiations

    Emerging evidence suggests that competitiveness and empathy explain men's greater willingness to use unethical tactics in negotiations. We tested whether and how robustly they do with three distinct studies, run with three distinct populations. Simultaneous mediation analyses generally, but not completely, confirmed our expectations. In Study 1, only competitiveness mediated sex differences in unethical negotiation tactics among Chilean business students. Although empathy also explained willingness to use unethical negotiation tactics, the Chilean men and women did not differ in this regard. In Study 2, competitiveness and empathy both mediated sex differences in American business students’ intentions to lie to a client, but competitiveness explained greater variance. In Study 3, both factors explained sex differences in lying to bargaining partners for real stakes by working-age Americans. Our findings suggest that competitiveness and empathy each explain sex differences in willingness to use unethical tactics, but the former does so more consistently.

    • 20 min
    Episode 3: Negotiation Contexts: How and Why They Shape Women’s and Men’s Decision to Negotiate

    Episode 3: Negotiation Contexts: How and Why They Shape Women’s and Men’s Decision to Negotiate

    In the substantial body of research on gender differences in the initiation of negotiation, the findings consistently favor men. In this episode we propose that this research itself is gendered because negotiation research has traditionally focused on masculine negotiation contexts. In this Article to Audio, we discuss the gender effect in initiating negotiations (favoring men) and the selection of “masculine,” “feminine,” and “neutral” negotiation contexts, which can be used for future negotiation research. We talk about how negotiation context shapes gender differences such that in specific social contexts, women tend to have even higher initiation intentions compared to men. Negotiation contexts generally seem to differ regarding their affordance to negotiate. The authors offer a possible explanation for gender effects on initiation intentions by uncovering the mediating role of expectancy considerations across all negotiation contexts, especially in masculine contexts, and instrumentality considerations in specific masculine and feminine contexts.

    • 23 min
    Episode 2, Part 2: "There is No Away: Where Do People Go When They Avoid an Interpersonal Conflict?"

    Episode 2, Part 2: "There is No Away: Where Do People Go When They Avoid an Interpersonal Conflict?"

    Episode 2 article abstract: When people avoid conflict, there is no “away.” Where do they go physically or mentally? Both engaging and avoiding have a push and a pull. If we knew where avoiders go, we could study the pull of avoidance. This is a descriptive study (N = 446) of interpersonal conflict. We found that physical and mental avoidance appeared with similar frequency, and that they could occur in combination. People often recognized their need for avoidance early, based on the topic being familiar or various signals of trouble. Avoidance during the conflict could be physical or mental, but notably involved false agreement or topic manipulation. The possibility of violence (physical, verbal, or emotional) was often relevant. Relationship worries frequently motivated the avoidance. After the avoidance rumination was common, often centering on what we called “festering anger.”

    • 19 min
    Episode 2, Part 1: "There is No Away: Where Do People Go When They Avoid an Interpersonal Conflict?"

    Episode 2, Part 1: "There is No Away: Where Do People Go When They Avoid an Interpersonal Conflict?"

    Episode 2 article abstract: When people avoid conflict, there is no “away.” Where do they go physically or mentally? Both engaging and avoiding have a push and a pull. If we knew where avoiders go, we could study the pull of avoidance. This is a descriptive study (N = 446) of interpersonal conflict. We found that physical and mental avoidance appeared with similar frequency, and that they could occur in combination. People often recognized their need for avoidance early, based on the topic being familiar or various signals of trouble. Avoidance during the conflict could be physical or mental, but notably involved false agreement or topic manipulation. The possibility of violence (physical, verbal, or emotional) was often relevant. Relationship worries frequently motivated the avoidance. After the avoidance rumination was common, often centering on what we called “festering anger.”

    • 26 min
    Episode 1: "Servant Leadership, Third-Party Behavior, and Emotional Exhaustion of Followers"

    Episode 1: "Servant Leadership, Third-Party Behavior, and Emotional Exhaustion of Followers"

    Episode 1 article abstract: Conflicts are ubiquitous in all life’s domain where people live and perform interdependent tasks, including convents. Managing conflicts among followers is an essential responsibility of leaders. The way leaders behave while managing such conflicts have received little academic attention; available studies have focused on business contexts. This study aimed to examine the relationship between servant leadership, and emotional exhaustion through team conflicts, and further investigates the mediating role of leaders’ third-party conflict behaviors such as avoiding, forcing, and problem-solving. Data were gathered from 453 religious sisters (followers), in 166 convents, in a Catholic Women Religious Institute mostly based in Nigeria. Structural equation modeling confirmed that servant leadership was associated with reduced team conflicts through leaders’ third-party behaviors. Further findings showed that perceived servant leadership was negatively related to emotional exhaustion through a nonforcing expression. We discussed theoretical and practical implications.

    • 24 min