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Science and stories about our awesome planet-- in just a few minutes!

MinuteEarth Neptune Studios

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Science and stories about our awesome planet-- in just a few minutes!

    • video
    How to Work From Home as a Team

    How to Work From Home as a Team

    Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ We've worked as a team - remotely - for seven years, and we're sharing some of our favorite tips for making it work. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, Narrator: Kate Yoshida Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: We surveyed our team members and put together our favorite specific tools and tips for working from home: Video Conference Tips: -During meetings, mute yourself when you’re not speaking, especially if you’re not using headphones. The noise in the room you’re in or the feedback caused by your speakers audio can make the communication less effective. -Learn how to mute other people in meetings (and don’t take offense when you do get muted). -Figure out tech workarounds for when your wifi inevitably goes on the fritz (call people in, turn off video to reduce wifi strain, etc). File Management Tips: -Establish a naming convention with your team, so that all your shared files are consistent, searchable and organized. All of our projects have two-word codenames and numbers that make it easy to identify them regardless of the final title of the video. When making recordings or video files, we use incremental numbering (e.g. “Audio 1”, “Audio 2”, etc). NEVER use the word “final” or “last” for naming a file! -If everybody is working with a file syncing app like Dropbox, make sure to set appropriate editing rights to your files. You want at least a shared folder that anyone on your team can edit and add stuff to, but some files need to be managed by fewer people to avoid unwanted deletions. For example, we have a folder in which everyone can add/modify/delete files, but only one person is in charge of deleting and cleaning up after everything important has been archived. -If there’s a particular task that is repetitive and can be done by different people, make sure to write down the steps in detail so that nothing is missed or forgotten. Tools For Giving Feedback -Screenshots: In OSX, use command-shift-4 to take a screenshot. On Windows 10, you can use the Windows Ink Workspace right in the task bar, which lets you crop and annotate your screenshot. -CloudApp(www.getcloudapp.com): Captures and shares screenshots (and more) via shareable links -Jing (www.techsmith.com/jing-tool.html): Lets you create screenshots and auto-generates a shareable link for each one. -Epic Pen (epic-pen.com): Great free tool for PCs for drawing on your screen (esp when sharing that screen with someone else) Other Work From Home Tips: -Add things like “time to eat lunch” on your calendar if you need it, or you may end up eating lunch at 3pm. -Keep track of your time! If you don’t keep track of the amount of time you spend working, you might overwork yourself (bad) and still feel like you’re not doing enough (worse). Toggl (www.toggl.com) is a great tool for that. -Consider coworking with a group of (nonwork) friends over Skype or Discord. It can help you get into “work mode” and make you feel a little less lonely while working.

    • 5 分钟
    • video
    How To Name A Disease (Like COVID-19)

    How To Name A Disease (Like COVID-19)

    To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 We’ve changed - and standardized - the way diseases get named because the old way was often stigmatizing and confusing. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Coronaviruses (CoV): a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as COVID-19. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): an infectious disease caused by a new strain of coronavirus that was discovered in 2019 and named a pandemic in 2020. 2009 H1N1 Flu: a pandemic disease that emerged in 2009 caused by the H1N1)pdm09 virus, which was different from any other influenza strain circulating at the time. World Health Organization (WHO): an organization that directs and coordinates international health within the United Nations system. 1918 Flu: often referred to as the “Spanish flu,” the 1918 influenza pandemic was the most severe pandemic in recent history and caused by an H1N1 virus. There are competing theories for its place of origin, but public health experts agree it did not actually originate in Spain. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It was first named “gay-related immunodeficiency disease (GRID),” despite the fact anyone, regardless of sexuality, is susceptible. Stigma: a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person. Pandemic: the worldwide spread of a new disease. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn more about social stigma associated with COVID-19: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/covid19-stigma-guide.pdf _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida and David Goldenberg Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Ballantyne, C. "Will Egypt’s plans to kill pigs protect it from swine—sorry, H1N1 flu." Sci Am News Blog https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/news-blog/will-egypts-plans-to-kill-pigs-prot-2009-05-01/ (2009). World Health Organization. "World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic." http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2009/h1n1_pandemic_phase6_20090611/en/index.html (2009). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "The 2009 H1N1 pandemic: summary highlights, April 2009-April 2010." Official Online Article Published by the Centers for Disease Control 4 https://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/cdcresponse.htm (2010). Selyukh, A. "Pork industry still reeling from swine flu.” ABC News https://abcnews.go.com/Business/pork-industry-reeling-swine-flu/story?id=8840004 (2009). World Health Organization. "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it" https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it (2020). World Health Organization. "World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases" https://apps.

    • 3 分钟
    • video
    Why Don't More Animals Eat Wood?

    Why Don't More Animals Eat Wood?

    Thanks to OIST for sponsoring this video. To learn more, visit https://admissions.oist.jp/ Wood is abundant and full of energy, but outside of some insects, almost no animals eat it because the stuff it's made of is hard to break down. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Xylophagy: the eating of wood Lignin: a class of complex organic polymers that form key structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and help make wood rigid. Cellulose: a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers, which is the main constituent of plant cell walls. Lignin oxidation: a depolymerization method to break bonds in lignin molecules such as ether or carbon–carbon bonds by applying an oxidant such as oxygen. Depolymerization: the process of breaking down a polymer, such as lignin, into simpler monomers Trichonympha agilis: a specialized protist that lives in the hindguts of many termite species that breaks down the cellulose in the wood they eat and may contribute to the lignin oxidation process. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn about the fungi that first unlocked the secrets of breaking down lignin: https://www.energy.gov/science/articles/behind-scenes-how-fungi-make-nutrients-available-world _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bourguignon, Thomas, et al. "Rampant host switching shaped the termite gut microbiome." Current biology 28.4 (2018): 649-654. Martin, Michael M. "Cellulose digestion in insects." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology 75.3 (1983): 313-324.Mathews, Stephanie L., et al. "Public questions spur the discovery of new bacterial species associated with lignin bioconversion of industrial waste." Royal Society open science 6.3 (2019): 180748. Chaney, William Reynolds. Why Do Animals Eat the Bark and Wood of Trees and Shrubs?. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, 2003. de Gonzalo, Gonzalo, et al. "Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation." Journal of Biotechnology 236 (2016): 110-119. Hosokawa, Takahiro, et al. "Strict host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution in insect gut bacteria." PLoS biology 4.10 (2006). Novaes, Evandro, et al. "Lignin and biomass: a negative correlation for wood formation and lignin content in trees." Plant Physiology 154.2 (2010): 555-561. Vega, Fernando E., and Richard W. Hofstetter, eds. Bark beetles: biology and ecology of native and invasive species. Academic Press, 2014. McNab, Brian Keith. The physiological ecology of vertebrates: a view from energetics. Cornell University Press, 2002. Bourguignon, Thomas, et al. "The evolutionary history of termites as inferred from 66 mitochondrial genomes." Molecular Biology and Evolution 32.2 (2014): 406-421. Morgenstern, I., Klopman, S., & Hibbett, D. S. (2008). Molecular Evolution and Diversity of Lignin Degrading Heme Peroxidases in the Agaricomycetes. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 66(3), 243–257. Suman, S. K., Dhawaria,

    • 3 分钟
    • video
    Where Does One Ocean End And Another Begin?

    Where Does One Ocean End And Another Begin?

    Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/   Earth's ocean water is continuous. How can we divide it into sections that are more useful?   Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:  IHO: International Hydrographic Organization ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:  We had fun playing with (and transitioning between) different map projections in this video, and we came across this great - and mesmerizing! - website: https://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/3711652 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/   Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC   And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman  Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________   References:   Antonello, A. (2018). The Southern Ocean. In Armitage D. (Ed.), Oceanic Histories (296-318). Cambridge University Press.Candido, M. (2011). South Atlantic. In Burnard, T. (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online: Atlantic History, Oxford University Press. Caspers, H. (1965). Van Mieghem, J. and Van Oye, P (Eds), Biogeography and Ecology in Antarctica. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk Publishers. Lewis, M.W. (1999). “Dividing the Ocean Sea.” Geographical Review 89 (2), 188-214. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1931-0846.1999.tb00213.x International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), (1953): Limits of Oceans and Seas, International Hydrographic Organization., Bremerhaven. https://epic.awi.de/id/eprint/29772/International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), (2002): Limits of Oceans and Seas , International Hydrographic Organization (DRAFT), Monaco.

    • 3 分钟
    • video
    How This River Made Chimps Violent

    How This River Made Chimps Violent

    Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth and use code MINUTEEARTH to get 70% off a 3 year plan plus 1 additional month free. When a group of apes got split apart, slight differences in their new environments led to big differences in future generations. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Chimpanzee: A great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives. Bonobo: A slightly smaller great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives. Speciation: A lineage-splitting event in which a population of the same species becomes two different species. Allopatric speciation: Speciation that occurs when populations of the same species get isolated geographically. Hominini: The taxonomical classification that includes humans, chimps, and bonobos. Pan: The taxonomical classification that includes chimps and bonobos. Chimpobo: A name we just made up to identify the common ancestor of the chimpanzee and bonobo. Congo river: The deepest river in the world and the second largest (behind the Amazon) in discharge volume. G-G Rubbing: A form of genital to genital contact bonobos sometimes use to form social bonds. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder VHS Rewind effect based on footage by http://www.anfx.co ___________________________________________ References: Caswell, J., Mallick, S., Richter, D., Neubauer, J., Schirmer, C., Gnerre, S., Reich, D. (2008). Analysis of Chimpanzee History Based on Genome Sequence Alignments. PLoS Genetics. 4(4): e1000057. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000057. Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139. Prufer, K. et al (2012). The Bonobo Genome Compared with the Chimpanzee and Human Genomes. Nature. 486: 527–531. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature11128. Hey, J. (2010). The Divergence of Chimpanzee Species and Subspecies as Revealed in Multipopulation Isolation-with-Migration Analyses. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27(4): 921-933. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877540/. Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139. Stanford, C. (2019). Personal Communication. Professor of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, University of Southern California.

    • 2 分钟
    • video
    The Fastest-Growing Plant In The World

    The Fastest-Growing Plant In The World

    Get your first audiobook and two Audible Originals for free when you try Audible for 30 days visit https://www.audible.com/minuteearth or text “minuteearth” to 500-500! Bamboo is the world’s fastest growing plant thanks to the cell elongation process it shares with all grasses and its unique cell wall layering adaptation, allowing it to shoot up to 100 ft (30m) in just 8 weeks. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Rhizome: a continuously growing horizontal underground stem which puts out lateral shoots and roots at intervals Vacuole: an organelle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid, whose main purpose in plants is to maintain pressure against the cell wall Microfibrils: fiber-like strands consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose that make up the cell wall structure Auxin: a plant hormone which causes the elongation of cells in shoots and is involved in regulating plant growth ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Fastest growing plant record - https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/fastest-growing-plant Grass: An Introduction - https://lizzieharper.co.uk/2018/06/grass-an-introduction/ Bamboo Shoot Timelapse - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77Pgqf0rTbY _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Narrator, Script Writer, and Co-Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator and Co-Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Velasquez, Silvia Melina, et al. "Auxin and cellular elongation." Plant Physiology 170.3 (2016): 1206-1215. Nonami, Hiroshi. "Plant water relations and control of cell elongation at low water potentials." Journal of Plant Research 111.3 (1998): 373-382. Wei, Qiang, et al. "Cellular and molecular characterizations of a slow-growth variant provide insights into the fast growth of bamboo." Tree physiology 38.4 (2018): 641-654. Li, Long, et al. "The association of hormone signalling genes, transcription and changes in shoot anatomy during moso bamboo growth." Plant biotechnology journal 16.1 (2018): 72-85. Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, Gunnar Kleist, and Richard J. Murphy. "Developmental changes in cell wall structure of phloem fibres of the bamboo Dendrocalamus asper." Annals of Botany 94.4 (2004): 497-505. Gamuyao, Rico, et al. "Hormone distribution and transcriptome profiles in bamboo shoots provide insights on bamboo stem emergence and growth." Plant and Cell Physiology 58.4 (2017): 702-716. Wysocki, William P., et al. "Evolution of the bamboos (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): a full plastome phylogenomic analysis." BMC evolutionary biology 15.1 (2015): 50. Cosgrove, Daniel J. "Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening." F1000Research 5 (2016). Lodish, Harvey, et al. "Molecular cell biology 4th edition." National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bookshelf (2000). Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine. "Cellular responses to auxin: division versus expansion." Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 2.5 (2010): a001446. Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, and Richard J. Murphy. "Ultrastructure of f

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