188 episodes

Science and stories about our awesome planet-- in just a few minutes!

MinuteEarth Neptune Studios

    • Science

Science and stories about our awesome planet-- in just a few minutes!

    • video
    How To Turn Poop Into Power

    How To Turn Poop Into Power

    Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth and use code MINUTEEARTH to get 70% off a 3 year plan and an extra month for free. Protect yourself online today. We could generate a lot of usable energy from human and animal poop through greater adoption of a process for using microbes to break down poop into methane gas. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Anaerobic digestion: a sequence of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen Methanogens: a methane-producing bacterium, especially an archaean which reduces carbon dioxide to methane Wastewater treatment: a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment, or directly reused Biogas: the mixture of gases produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter, primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide, which can be used as a renewable energy source ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Andriani, Dian, et al. "A review of recycling of human excreta to energy through biogas generation: Indonesia case." Energy Procedia 68 (2015): 219-225. Karki, Amrit B. "Biogas as renewable energy from organic waste." Journal (2009). Hatchett, Allison N. "Bovines and Global Warming: How the Cows are Heating Things Up and What Can Be Done to Cool Them Down." Wm. & Mary Envtl. L. & Pol'y Rev. 29 (2004): 767. Onojo, O. J., et al. "Estimation of the electric power potential of human waste using students hostel soak-away pits." American Journal of Engineering Research, 02 (9) (2013): 198-203. “RCA Issue Brief #7.” Animal Manure Management, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Dec. 1997, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/null/?cid=nrcs143_014211#table1. “Electricity Generation from Biogas.” Energypedia, https://energypedia.info/wiki/Electricity_Generation_from_Biogas.

    • 3 min
    • video
    You Have More Bones Than You Think

    You Have More Bones Than You Think

    Go to curiositystream.com/minute to get a free month trial with CuriosityStream and get a subscription to Nebula bundled in for free!   Because the ossification process can differ so much from human to human, we have a wide range of potential bone numbers.   Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:  Cartilage: The flexible connective tissue that is turned to bone by osteoblasts.Osteoblasts: Cells that control calcium and mineral deposition to turn cartilage into bone.Sesamoids: Bones embedded in tendons or muscles.Fabella: A large sesamoid bone occasionally found behind the knee joint. Coccyx: The small set of semi-fused triangular bones at the end of the vertebral column. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/   Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC   And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Director and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman  Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________   References:   Goldberg I, Nathan H. (1987). Anatomy and pathology of the sesamoid bones. The hand compared to the foot. International Orthopaedics. 11(2):141-7. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3610408.Vineet K. Sarin  Gregory M. Erickson  Nicholas J. Giori A. Gabrielle Bergman  Dennis R. Carter (2003). Coincident development of sesamoid bones and clues to their evolution. The Anatomical Record.5: 174-180. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-0185%2819991015%29257%3A5%3C174%3A%3AAID-AR6%3E3.0.CO%3B2-O. Tao Sun, Lingxiang Wang, Haitao Zhao,Wenjuan Wu,and Wenhai Hu (2016). Prevalence, morphological variation and ossification of sesamoid bones of the forefoot: a retrospective radiographic study of 8,716 Chinese subjects. 2(3): 91–96. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410651/. Postacchini F, Massobrio M. (1983). Idiopathic coccygodynia: Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. 65(8): 1116-1124. Retrieved from: https://www.coccyx.org/medabs/posta.htm.Meals, Roy. (2019). Personal Communication. http://www.AboutBone.com

    • 2 min
    • video
    Why It’s HARD To Bring A New Apple To Market

    Why It’s HARD To Bring A New Apple To Market

    Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Fruit trees are unpredictable and grow slowly, and consumer tastes are fickle, so successful new varieties of fruit are rare. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: grafting: joining together a cut branch with a cut root of the same species to produce a new individual ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: Ever Salazar and Alex Reich With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, and Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Hoying SA, AM DeMarree and MM Sazo. 2012. Successful Apple Grafting Techniques for New York. New York Fruit Quarterly 20 7-10. Janick J. 2005. The origin of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant Breeding Rev. 25:255-320. Luby JJ and DS Bedford. 1992. Honeycrisp apple. Minnesota Report 225-1992 (AD-MR-5877-B) Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. 2019. Fruit Breeding. University of Minnesota website. http://arb.umn.edu/horticultural-research-center/fruit-breeding Seetin M. 2018. 2018 U.S. Apple Crop Outlook and Overview. usapple.org 42 pages Tadesse W et al. 2019. Genetic gains in wheat breeding and its role in feeding the world. Crop Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics 2019;1:e190005. https://doi.org/10.20900/cbgg20190005 Yamamato T. 2016. Breeding, genetics and genomics of fruit trees. Breeding Science 66:1-2.

    • 3 min
    • video
    Nobody Really Knows What A Concussion Is

    Nobody Really Knows What A Concussion Is

    Go to curiositystream.com/minute to get a free month trial with CuriosityStream and get a subscription to Nebula bundled in for free!   Experts can't agree on the definition of the term "concussion," which makes it difficult to diagnose, treat, and research this important brain injury.    Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:  Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in people with a history of repetitive brain trauma (often athletes)Traumatic brain injury (TBI): a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injurySubdural hematoma: a collection of blood between the layers of tissue that surround the brainCerebral microbleeding: small chronic brain hemorrhages which are likely caused by structural abnormalities of the small vessels of the brain  ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:  Everything we know about concussions is wrong – https://qz.com/1136683/everything-we-know-about-concussions-is-wrong/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/   Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC   And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius  Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________   References: Rasmussen, Carly, et al. "How Dangerous Are Youth Sports for the Brain: A Review of the Evidence." Berkeley J. Ent. & Sports L. 7 (2018): 67. - https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1077&context=bjesl Shen, Francis X. "Are youth sports concussion statutes working." Duq. L. Rev. 56 (2018): 7. - https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3172294 Sharp, David J., and Peter O. Jenkins. "Concussion is confusing us all." Practical neurology 15.3 (2015): 172-186. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4453625/ Tator, Charles H. "Concussions and their consequences: current diagnosis, management and prevention." CMAJ 185.11 (2013): 975-979. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3735746/ Whitelaw, A. S., and I. Young. "A case of perilymphatic fistula in blunt head injury." Emergency medicine journal 22.12 (2005): 921-921. - https://emj.bmj.com/content/22/12/921Mason, Peggy. “Concussion Is a Counter-Productive Term: Let's Retire It.” The Brain Is Sooooo Cool!, 5 July 2015, https://thebrainissocool.com/2015/07/05/concussion-is-a-counter-productive-term-lets-retire-it/ Haller, Sven, et al. "Cerebral microbleeds: imaging and clinical significance." Radiology 287.1 (2018): 11-28. - https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2018170803 Goldenbaum, Ellen. “Is It Really a Concussion? Symptoms Overlap with Neck Injuries, Making Diagnosis a Tough Call.” UB News Center, 29 July 2014, http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2014/07/040.html

    • 3 min
    • video
    The Great Acceleration

    The Great Acceleration

    Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ We’re in the middle of a rapid, unprecedented, and world-changing increase in the intensity and scale of human activity on this planet. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:  The Great Acceleration - the dramatic increase in human activity, largely since 1950, that is evident across a variety of socio-economic and biophysical measures, and that has made humans into a planetary scale forceThe Anthropocene -  our current geological epoch (contested), beginning when humans first had significant impact on Earth's geology and ecosystemsHockey stick graph - typically refers to the Mann et al 1999 graph of Earth’s temperature, but can also refer to any trend that's roughly constant for a long duration and then has a drastic upwards shift ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:  Welcome to the Anthropocene film - https://vimeo.com/39048998Animated map of last 200,000 years of human population - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUwmA3Q0_OEThe history of emissions and the Great Acceleration - https://skepticalscience.com/EmmissionsAcceleration.html The Hockey Stick Controversy - https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/05/the-hockey-stick-the-most-controversial-chart-in-science-explained/275753/ An argument for 'why growth can’t be green’ - https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/12/why-growth-cant-be-green/# Can we stabilize Earth, or are we going to cross planetary thresholds? - www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1810141115  An attainable global vision for conservation and human well-being - https://www.nature.org/content/dam/tnc/nature/en/documents/TNC_AnAttainableGlobalVision_Frontiers.pdf _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Director and Illustrator: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) With Contributions From: Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder   Image Credits: Hockey stick graph: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:T_comp_61-90.pdf by Klaus Bittermann. Used with permission.Copper graph based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_copper#/media/File:Copper_-_world_production_trend.svg Life expectancy graph: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy CO2 graph: https://rateofchange.substack.com/p/the-rate-of-change-july-15-2019 Girl receiving oral polio vaccine: https://www.flickr.com/photos/cdcglobal/8190819087 No changes were made.   ___________________________________________   References:   Barnosky, A. D., et al. 2014. Introducing the scientific consensus on maintaining humanity’s life support systems in the 21st century: Information for policy makers. The Anthropocene Review, 1(1), 78-109. http://bit.ly/34rguHzIGPB. 2015. Great Acceleration. http://www.igbp.net/globalchange/greatacceleration.4.1b8ae20512db692f2a680001630.html Accessed Aug 2019.Hellmann, J. Aug 2019. Personal communication. Mann, M. E., et al. 1999. Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(6), 759-762. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/1999GL900070. McNeill, J.R. O

    • 3 min
    • video
    How Many Zebras Are In This Photo?

    How Many Zebras Are In This Photo?

    Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/   New technology has revolutionized how we study wild animals, but it has also bogged down scientists with data...luckily, there's an *intelligent* solution.   Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:  Deep learning: a subset of machine learning in artificial intelligence that can learning from data that is unstructured or unlabeled ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:  Take a look at the Snapshot Serengeti colletion and try your hand at classifying species, counting animals, and determining behaviors: https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/zooniverse/snapshot-serengeti Learn about the whale shark project and report your sightings: https://www.whaleshark.org/Explore underwater recordings of humpback whales and make your own discoveries: https://patternradio.withgoogle.com/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/   Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC   And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor, Video Director and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman  Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder:   Image Credits: All the photos of the savannah by the SnapshotSerengeti Projecthttps://snapshotserengeti.org Sogod Bay Whale Shark video by Miguel Hilariohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=husPSPJv80o   ___________________________________________   References: Duporge I, Isupova O, and Reece S (2019, April 4) Using Satellite Imagery and Machine Learning to Detect and Monitor Elephants. https://blog.hexagongeospatial.com/using-satellite-imagery-and-machine-learning-to-detect-and-monitor-elephants/ Norouzzadeh MS, Nguyen A, Kosmala M, Swanson A, Palmer MS, Packer C, and Clune J (2018). Automatically identifying, counting, and describing wild animals in camera-trap images with deep learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (25): E5716-E5725. https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/37298550/6016780.pdf?sequence=1 Packer C, personal communication (2019, September 12).Swanson AB, Kosmala M, Lintott CJ, Simpson RJ, Smith A, Packer C (2015) Snapshot Serengeti, high-frequency annotated camera trap images of 40 mammalian species in an African savanna. Scientific Data 2: 150026. https://www.nature.com/articles/sdata201526Wildbook for Whale Sharks. https://www.whaleshark.org/

    • 3 min

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