Insulin and ketone metabolism expert, Ben Bikman, PhD is back on the show for part 2--and it's a epic conversation. (If you missed episode #250, it was a great one, I’ll put a link to it on the show notes page.)
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About today’s show:
Show Notes: https://highintensityhealth.com/250
Ben and I expand on the first discussion--diving further into why glycogen depletion and glucagon are needed and helpful in helping to kick-start fat loss and ketone production. We also discuss nuances around protein, mTOR and building muscle.
Here’ s quick run-down of the time stamps:
05:49 We are applying the low carb ketogenic diet in bizarre ways by dumping oil into their drinks. There is no other nutritional value to the oils. Eggs are loaded with nutrition. Dr. Bikman mixes raw egg into his morning tea.
07:45 Fasted exercise stimulates glucagon. Our red blood cells need glucose. When we need gluconeogenesis, glucagon will be elevated. If you are low carb, exercising in a fasted state, or you are fasted, you need gluconeogenesis. Glucagon will be elevated and insulin, which inhibits gluconeogenesis, will be low.
09:37 People may be confusing gluconeogenesis with an insulinogenic effect. If you are low carb, gluconeogenesis happens only as much as you need it.
10:40 If you have ketogenesis happening, you have gluconeogenesis. Fat is used for fuel, and parallel, we have the need for new essential glucose to be produced.
13:14 Depleting glycogen is a necessary event before ketogenesis kicks in.
14:10 True clinical hypoglycemia is remarkably uncommon. If you are insulin resistant, and your brain has been depending upon high glucose and has had no time to adapt to using ketones for fuel, glucose levels can get low. Your body senses this and panics. There is more than enough glucose.
17:03 There are two phases of hunger. The first phase is hunger from empty guts. It is passing. The second phase of hunger is when your body says that there is a genuine deficiency of energy and you want to eat anything and will do anything to get it.
18:22 As long as you have sufficient salt and water consumption, you are good for exercise. If you have food in your gut, your body is conflicted about sending blood to your muscles or your guts.
19:57 Protein increases insulin and glucagon. Other macros increase one or the other.
21:02 Glucagon is catabolic of fat tissue. There are not many glucagon receptors in muscle.
21:55 If you are low carb or fasted and you need gluconeogenesis, there is no appreciable increase in insulin from the protein, yet a substantial increase in glucagon.
23:00 Glucagon activates lipolysis, increasing free fatty acids. The liver sees more fatty acids, but since insulin is low, the liver will not store the fat. Hormones tell the body what to do with energy.
23:54 Acetyl-CoA is the branch point of all metabolic processes in the liver and most other cells. It can be used for creating new glucose, activating gluconeogenesis, create lipids through lipogenesis and it can to into the citrate cycle and be used for energy, creating ATP, or it can be used for ketogenesis. All of this is dependent upon insulin. Catecholamines and glucagon counter insulin, but insulin reigns supreme.
25:40 Consuming meat or saturated fat does not create lipotoxicity, nor insulin resistance.
27:36 In animal and human studies of saturated fat, fat was administered intravenously. Elsewhere it was tested against muscle tissue in the lab, which does not reflect the complex systems of the body, especially the influence of insulin. Both of these formats helped to form our mechanistic th